List of Christians in the Holy Land




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Dupuis Jean, Crusader: A Crusader's Tombstone was discovered in Haifa in 1976. The inscription dates from the 13th century. It reads: ' Ci gist Johan dou Puis sergant dou puissant Roy de France. Proies por l'ame. ' (Here lies Jean Dupuis, sergeant of the mighty King of France. Pray for the soul.) The stone was probably brought from a Crusader cemetery in either Acre or Athlit, when the house in Haifa was built in the twenties of the twentieth century. The tombstone is now in the Haifa City Museum of Ancient Art. (Jerusalem Post, Feb 26, 1976) The name 'mighty king' indicates probably St. Louis, king of France, who was in the Holy Land from 1250 to 1254.


Durandus Bugerii, Templar. He was sent in 1288 by Pope Nicholas IV to bring the pallium to the Holy Land, in order to deliver it to William de Sancto Johanne at his consecration as archbishop of Nazareth. (Prawer J. Crusader Tomb from Acre, Israel Exploration Journal, vol. 24, 1974, p. 248)


Duravelenses, duo monachi: Two monks visited Palestine in the 8th century. (AA.SS. Oct 21)


Dutch Counts (1467). They legated by testament their hearts to be buried in Jerusalem.


Dux Elpidius. Prior to the 11th century the Mountain Quarantine was called Duk or Jebel ad Duk. The byzantine monks called this mountain Douka, because of their leader Dux Elpidius, the monk, who repelled in the 4th century the attacks of the neighbouring Jews of the nearby village Noeron (Noara, Noeros, Noros).


'Dwellers on the sand' is an Ethiopian name for monks. They are saluted by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 16th day of the month Sane, which begins on June 5 and ends on July 4.


Earthquakes, commemorated in - the Greek liturgy: -On Sept 29 is commemorated the earthquake Which happened under Emperor Theodosius the Great (= Theodosius I, 379-395); -On Oct 26 is remembered the earthquake under Emperor Leo, the [saurian, the first of the iconoclasts emperors, (717-740); -On Nov 6 is the remembrance of the heavy fall (rain) of ashes, which threatened to burn the town of Constantinople (466) under Emperor Leo the Great (= Leo I, 457-474); -On Jan 26 remembrance of the earthquake about 450 under Emperor Theodosius Minor (= Theodosius II, 408450). This earthquake occurred during three months-The earthquakes are considered in the liturgy in connection with politics: the earthquake under Emperor Theodosius the Great was regarded as a threat against the Nestorian heresy; the quake about 740 against the iconoclasm which was propagated by Emperor Leo the Isaurian; the calamity of 466 against the Arians, who were protected by Emperor Leo I. 1 the earthquake round 450 was connected with a votum for the Council of Chalcedon (451) against the Monophysites.


Eastern pilgrims and Holy Fire: 198 pilgrims were killed in a panic, during the ceremony of the Holy Fire on Holy Saturday, May 3, 1834, in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. lbrahim Pasha, the Egyptian conqueror of Palestine in 1831, assisted at the ceremony of the Holy Fire and narrowly escaped before the stampede. (Curzon Robert, Visits to Monasteries in the Levant. London, 1849, p. 208-235)


Eclipse of the sun in 1269: In the reign of Iyôb Kher, and in the days of Abba Cyril. (Ethiopian Synaxarium, Tekemt 9).


Ecumenical Patriarch. He is considered as 'primus inter pares' i.e. he receives the first place in honorific precedence.


Eden Anthony. He died on Jan 13, 1977 in England. Eden was a major architect of the 1956 invasion of the Suez Canal Zone by Britain, France and Israel in a bid to wrest control of the canal zone from Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser. Eden then was Prime Minister, and the three had to withdraw from the Suez Canal Zone because of the opposition of the Eisenhower administration, which was spearheaded by then Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles.


Edessa Refugees: Queen Melisend, who was an Armenian, brought in 1144 to Jerusalem many Armenian and Syrian survivors of the town Edessa, which had fallen to Zenghi. A colophon in a lectionary in St. Mark's, which was written in the convent of St. Mary Magdalen in Jerusalem in 1149 by 'a sinful and humble monk from Edessa' praises King Baldwin and Queen Melisend for all they did for these unhappy survivors of Edessa. (Taylor W. R. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, XI, (1931), pp. 120-123)


Edessa, a site near Jericho: Six miles north of Jericho was a sanctuary in honour of John of Edessa, who was a soldier from Edessa and who had associated himself with Cyrus. Cyrus and John became martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (284-315). (Patr. Gr. 120, 26112; 269170)


Edokis, priest (Eudoxius?) see lsaac the Samaritan.


Edward of England (Later King Edward I). Prince Edward joined St. Louis of France, and they landed at Carthage in July 1270. There Louis died of a sickness on Aug 26, 1270. Prince Edward conducted a crusade of his own to Acre in 1270. There he met in 1271 his friend Visconti (the later Pope Gregory X).


Edward VII, (of England). As Prince of Wales, he visited Jerusalem in 1862 and was there tattooed. He encamped north of the city on a site, which was known as the Karem (Vineyard) of the sheikh el-Khalili. This sheikh planted a pine-tree. The tree is now almost 300 years old. In 1971 the Nelson Rockefeller Park was opened here. In Crusader days this area was occupied by the Farm of Belveer. Near the Nelson Rockefeller Park is Rockefeller Museum, formerly Palestine Archaeological Museum.


Eelko and Sikko. Famous leaders of the Crusaders of Friesland in the first crusade (1096-1099). (AA.SS. March 22)


Effernanus de Lunello, Saint. He planned, together with Saint Gerius, to visit Palestine in the 13th century. (AA.SS. May 25)


Egelwinus, monk. He visited Palestine round 1020. (Miracula S. Dunstani, n. 21) (AA.SS. May 19)


Egidius of Assisi, Blessed, disciple of St. Francis of Assisi. Egidius was the first Franciscan to come to the Holy Land as a pilgrim in 1215 (died 1261, at Perugia, on the eve of St. George, the martyr, i.e. on 22-23 April). His memory, kept by the Franciscans, is on April 23. See: Aegidius of Assisi.


Egidius of Perugia = Egidius of Assisi.


Egion = Aegion.


Egypt, Stay in Egypt. The place of the sole of the foot of the Child Jesus, is in the monastery of Gamnudi in Egypt. The place is called Dabra Metmak. Another place where a well was found, is Matareya near Heliopolis in Egypt. The stay of Jesus in Egypt after his flight from Bethlehem is remembered in the Ethiopian Synaxarium on the 24th of the month Genbot.


Egyptian merchants. They lived in the town of Majuma near Gaza in 401. (Vita S. Porphyrii, auct. Marco diac., c. VIll, n. 58) (AA.SS. Feb 26)


Eichmann Adolf. This Nazi organised the extermination of the Jews during the Second World War. He escaped from Germany in 1945, he was discovered at Buenos-Aires and captured in 1960. He was brought to Israel. There he was executed.


Eight Palestinian martyrs in Alexandria: Agapius, two Alexander, two Dionysius, Timolaos, Romylos, Plesius (Paesis). They were martyred on March 24, 297. (Eusebius, De Mart. Palest., 111, 3-4)


Eisenhower Dwight. He obliged in 1956 Britain, France, Israel to withdraw from the occupied Suez Canal Zone. He accepted in 1961 to visit Jordan and the Holy Places.


Eleazar, priest and the son of Aaron. He is commemorated on Sept 3 by the lectionary of Paris, together with the priest Aaron and with his son, Phinehas. The three are venerated in the village of Thamnachar. - Flavius Josephus (Ant. 5, 119) speaks of a mnemeion and a taphos of Eleazar in Gabatha (= hight). Petrus Diaconus (417) sees 'on another hight the church above the tomb of Eleazar and his son Phinehas'. This mount was near Thamnatsare, where the grave of Joshua was venerated. According to the Samaritan tradition the highpriest Eleazar and his son Phinehas are buried in the village of Awarta. In this village is the tomb EI Azeir (Eleazar) and the tomb el Azeirat. Nebi Saleh, a village with a Police Station on the way from Bir Zeit to Abud, claims that there Eleazar, the son of Aaron, was buried.


Eleazar, the scribe. This man of 90 years of age, refused to eat pork during the campaign of King Antiochus Epiphanes (=Antiochus W, 175-163 BC) who tried to Hellenize the Jews (2 Mac 6, 18-31). The Armenian lectionary remembers the martyrdom of Eleazar. The Georgian liturgy and the Greek liturgy commemorate the seven Maccabean brothers and their mother on Aug 1. The Melkite liturgy has the memory of the seven brothers and of the aged Eleazar, on August 1. The martyrs were not of the family of the Maccabeans, but their martyrdom occurred in the time of the Maccabeans. The Roman martyrology does not mention Eleazar, but mentions the mother of the seven brothers: the seven brothers and their mother are venerated in the Roman Martyrology on Aug 1.


Elenar: see Alenar.


Elesba(a)n: see Elesba(a)s, king of Ethiopia.


Elesba(a)s, (Elesboas, Kaleb), king of Ethiopia, Oct 27. In the Ethiopian Church his feast is on May 15. Elesbaas was king of Aksum in Ethiopia, he fought in 525 against the Jewish ruler Dhu-Nawas, who persecuted the Christians in Nedjran, a town in South-Arabia. Emperor Justinian asked Elesbaas for his help against the Persians. Elesbaas lost a battle against an opponent, and retired to a cell near Aksum. He died about 555. Elesbaas sent legates to Palestine round 550. (Passio S. Arethae, c. IX, n. 39) (AA.SS. Oct 24)


Eleutherius, St., and Grimoaldus, his brother. They came to Palestine in the 8th century. See also: Grimoaldus de Ponte curvo, Saint, and Eleutherius, who were brothers of Saint Fulcus (round 1137) (AA.SS. Sept 29; May 29; June 3).


Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin, Belt Gubrin). 'Sixty martyrs' were buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity at Eleutheropolis. They were from Gaza, they refused to accept the Islam-religion in 638, they passed two months in jail at Eleutheropolis, they were transferred to Jerusalem and there executed. The bodies were brought to Eleutheropolis, and there buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity. (Analecta Bollandiana 23 (1904), 290-303)


Eleutherus, bishop of Jericho. He accompanied John, bishop of Jerusalem, and Eusthonus, bishop of Sebaste, to identify the bones of St. Stephen in Kafargamala in 415.


Eli, priest at Shiloh, in the time of the Judges. Eli was the father of Hophni and Phinehas, two corrupt priests. The prophecy of Samuel (1 Sam 2, 27-36) predicted the fall of the House of Eli. His two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, fell in the battle against the Philistines on the same day. Eli died, when he heard of the tragedy at the battle, which was lost at Aphek. Eli is not listed as a saint. Petrus Diaconus (1137) mentions a tomb of Eli in Shiloh. Jakob of Paris (1258) and Isaak Helo (1334) mention the tomb of Eli and of his two sons in ShiJoh.


Elia, an Armenian monk. The pictorial tiles, numbering 45, arranged in vertical and horizontal rows in the Church St. James of the Armenian Compound in Jerusalem, have been plastered by Elia, who was a monk. The tiles date from 1719 to 1727. They depict stories of the Old and the New Testament.


Elianus, martyr. See: Aelian, Aelianus. Nov 26 and Nov 28 in the Georgian liturgy.


Elias, bishop of Aeropolis. He is mentioned in 536.


Elias, bishop of Madaba. He was bishop of Madaba, probably in 6021603.


Elias, hermit near the Jordan, 3th/4th century. He is mentioned in Acta Sanctorum on September 11.


Elias of Abud, priest. In a colophon (= final inscription) of an evangeliarium in the Syriac language (Vatican), priest Elias, a native of Abud, declared that he finished on Wednesday of the 9th week after Pentecost, this means, in the month of Ab, the writing of the Gospel in the convent of Abuna Moses, which is in the country of Antioch. It was in the year 1341 of Alexander the Greek (= 1030 CE). Elias of Abud returned from Antioch and rebuilt in Abud the convent of Elias, which was known as Deir el Kawkab. The evangeliarium was for this convent of Kawkab in Abud.


Elias of Ascalon, martyr. In the Roman Martyrology Elias is mentioned together with Ares, Probus. The three martyrs were killed on December 14, 308. - Elias, Ares, Promotus (or Probus) are named in June in Martyrologium Usuardi; they are in the Martyrology of Jerusalem on December 15.


Elias of Assisi. Franciscan lay brother. He was the first Minister Provincialis of the Holy Land. He came to Syria in 1217118, he returned to Italy with Francis of Assisi in 1219120. See also: Elias of Cortona.


Elias of Cortona. (= Elias of Assisi). Elias built in Assisi the basilica to house the relics of St. Francis of Assisi. In 1239, at the general chapter that was presided by Pope Gregory IX, Elias was deposed. Soon afterwards Elias joined the Emperor Frederick II; Elias was excommunicated, but he did penance, and he died absolved, at Cortona on April 22, 1253.


Elias of Palestine. He was a bishop of Egypt, he was martyred in Palestine, together with Peleus, Nilus, under Diocletian (284-313). The commemoration in the Roman Martyrology is on Sept 19; in the Coptic calendar on September 12.


Elias I, patriarch of Jerusalem. His memory in the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem is on July 21; the Greek Patriarchate has the memory on July 4. Elias was patriarch of Jerusalem from 498 to 518. He died in exile in 518. At the Synod of Sidon in 511, Elias was summoned to condemn the doctrine of Chalcedon. But Elias won the majority of the bishops to his side and sent a delegation under Sabas of Constantinople to defend his position in Jerusalem. Emperor Anastasius 1(491-518) exiled Elias to Aila (Eilath) in 516. - The Syriae Church has his feast on Feb 18; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Jan 26. The AA.SS. have the feast on July 4.


Elias II, patriarch of Jerusalem (787-797). Perhaps Elias II is meant by the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Jan 27. Elias II was exiled to Persia during a period of a twenty years till about 787. The date of his death is round 800. (AA.SS. Feb 25)


Elias III, patriarch of Jerusalem (879-907). Elias III asked in 881 from King Charles le Gros (839-888) subsidies for the repair of the churches, that had been damaged by the Moslems. - According to a colophon originating from St. Sabas, Elias III died on Oct 4, 906. He was succeeded by Sergius II.


Elias, Latin patriarch of Jerusalem in Acre, 1279-1287. (AA.SS. Prop., May)


Elias, priest and recluse at Beit-Shean. In the monastery of Lady Mary is a church with the apse facing eastwards. Its mosaic pavement has 2 inscriptions. The inscription before the apse on the left side reads: 'Where the wreath-cross is, there lies the... of the mouth of the tomb, having rings. There have I laid my Christ-loving sister Georgia, I, Elias, by the mercy of God a most lowly recluse. ' The inscription before the apse on the right side reads: 'Where the wreath-cross is, there lies the... But if the Lady Mary, who founded this church, desires to be laid in this tomb, or anyone of her family at any time - I, Elias, by the mercy of God a recluse, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost curse and anathematize everyone after me that hinders her or any of hers, or that takes up this my inscription. '- 'Christ-loving Lady Mary and her son Maximus' were the founders of this monastery, about the year 567. So it is recorded twice in the mosaic floor.


Elias, the Soldier, martyr of Egypt in 3091310 in Caesarea, Pales. tine, under Emperor Galerius (305. 311). Elias, Jeremias, Isaias, Samuel and Daniel converted to Christianity and received the names of five prophets. They went from Alexandria to Cilicia, to support the persecuted Christians. On the return they visited Pamphilus and Porphyrus in the prison at Caesarea, Palestine. There the five were arrested and beheaded. The AA.SS. mention them on Feb 16. They are venerated also on Aug 21.
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