List of Christians in the Holy Land

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Constantine, priest and hegumenos. The tabula ansata-inscription of the church Nea at Jerusalem reads: 'And this work carried out our most pious Emperor Flavius Justinianus under the care and the devotion of Constantinus, the most holy Priest and Hegumen, in the thirteenth (year) of (the) indiction. ' (Israel Exploration Journal, vol 27, 1977 p. 145-151). The 13th year of the Indiction of Emperor Justinianus (527-565) is probably 5341535. The church NEA was consecrated in 543. Pratum Spirituale mentions this Constantine.

Constantine the Russian, martyr. He was born in Russia, and served as priest in the Russian Embassy of Constantinople. During a Russian-Turkish war, he went to Mount Athos and to Jerusalem. Later he returned to Constantinople, and because of a quarrel, he renounced his faith. He repented, returned to the Christian Faith and was brought before the sultan. He refused to embrace Islam and was killed in Constantinople in 1743. The Greek liturgy venerates him on Dec 26.

Constantinia = Constantinople

Constantinople: Big fire of 461 under Emperor Leon the Great (Leon I). During 4 days it devastated a great part of the city. The flames stopped only on the seventh day. The calamity is yearly remembered in Jerusalem by the Greek liturgy on Sept 1.

Constantinus, priest and hegumen of the monastery of Nea in Jerusalem. (John Moschus, Pratum Spirituale, 6) see Constantine

Copronius (Kefrenya). He lived in Egypt, went to Jerusalem, led b, an angel of God, and arrived there in one night... and he returned to his habitation and died in peace. - 'Salutation to Kefrenya, the son of a pagan, who bound in fetters a wild beast that slew the cattle' (Ethiopian Syn. Khedar 8.)

Coptic Archbishops of Jerusalem

Basilius I (Basil): 1236-12601

Butrus I (Peter): 1271-1306

Mikhail (Michael): 1310-1324

Iuannes (John): 1326-1340;

Butrus II (Peter): 1341-1362;

Zakhariah (Zachariah): 1575-1600;

Ya'coub (James): 1604-16281

Akhristudulus I (Christodoulos): 1630-1648

Ghabrial (Gabriel): 1680-1705;

Akhristudulus II: 1720-1724;

Athânâsius (Athanasius): 1725-1766;

Yusûb (Joseph): 1770-1796;

Akhristudulus III: 1797-1819

Abram (Ephraem): 1820-1854

Basilius II: 1856-1899

Timôthâûs (Timothy): 1899-1925;

Basilius III: 1925-1935;

Tawfilus (Theophilus): 1935-1945;

Yaqubus (James): 1946-1956;

Basilius IV (Basil): 1959

Coptic Khan. During the rule of Mehmet Ali, Abraham, bishop, 1820-1854) of the Copts, established the Coptic Khan near the Pool of Hezekiah in Jerusalem. Under Mehmet Ali, the Greeks, round 1819, were obliged to rebuild the Coptic Chapel to the west of the Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre. This chapel is called 'the Head of the Holy Sepulchre'. The name can remind us that Jesus was laid in the tomb with the head to the west, and with the feet to the entrance at the east.

Coptic Patriarch in Jerusalem. In the 17th century (June: AA.SS.)

Copts in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre. Behind (to the west) the Edicule of the Holy Sepulchre is the Chapel of the Copts. In 1112 the Latins had here a Latin altar. In 1573 the Copts obtained this altar. It was destroyed by the fire in 1808. The Greeks omitted in 1810 to rebuild it. Mehmet Ali of Egypt obliged the Greeks to rebuild it.

Cordeliers (Friars of the Cord). So the Franciscans were known from the 14th century in Palestine.

Cornelius St. (particular feast of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem on Feb 3) The Roman centurion Cornelius was baptized by St. Peter in Caesarea. (Acts 10, 11-11 and Acts 13, 16). St Peter indicated him bishop of Caesarea. For this Cornelius was imprisoned. - The Greek synaxaries have his feast on Sept 13; Sept 11; October 20; the Jacobite liturgy on Nov 19; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar on Nov 20. - According to legend, Cornelius preached in Phoenicia, Cyprus, Antioch, Ephesus and in Scepsis (Mysia) where he was a bishop.

Cosmas, Italus: see Cosmas, the teacher, round 675.

Cosmas of Constantinople. He was born in Syria, He entered the monastic life at Jerusalem and went from there to Constantinople where he stayed in the monastery of Chora. In 1075 he was called to the patriarchal throne to succeed John VII. In 1078 he crowned

Nikephorus III Botaniates. In 1081 he resigned from office and entered, a monastery where he died in peace. The Greek liturgy has his feast on Jan 2.

Cosmas of San Damiano, Martyr, Blessed. 1597. Granada and Malaga claim the honour of being his birthplace. He worked in the Holy Land. He returned for 4 years to Vallodolid. He came back to Palestine and lived in the Franciscan Convent of St. Saviour in Jerusalem. On August 15, 1597 - it was a Friday - he began to preach near the Dome of the Rock. Therefore he was beheaded. The Moslems threatened afterwards the Convent of St. Saviour. The Martyrologium Franciscanum has his feast on August 15.

Cosmas, the Melodist, St. He lived in the laura of St. Sabas, together with St. John Damascenus. Cosmas became bishop of Majuma near Gaza. Cosmas and John of Damascus composed liturgical songs. Cosmas was from Jerusalem; he became bishop in 743, he died about 760. His feast is celebrated by the Greeks on Oct 14. (The AA.SS. place his death in 781.) - The teacher of Cosmas the Melodist in St. Sabas had also the name Cosmas. - Cosmas, the condisciple of St. John Damascenus is to be discerned from Cosmas, the Teacher. (AA.SS. May 6)

Cosmas, the Teacher of John Damascenus and of Cosmas the Melodist, in the laura of St. Sabas. Cosmas, the Teacher, is called ITALUS (of Italy), he came to Palestine round 675. (AA.SS. May 6)

Cosmas of Jerusalem. He was the disciple of Saint Berthold. This Cosmas is mentioned in AA.SS. on Sept 2. He died in 1197.

Cosmas, the unmercenary physician. (July 1) Cosmas was the son of Theodote (her feast is on Jan 2) and of a pagan father who died early. Cosmas studied medicine and practised his profession without accepting money. He also had great compassion for animals. Once, Cosmas scolded his brother Damian for having received three eggs from a woman, but Damian accepted these not to insult the woman. Cosmas suffered martyrdom at Cyrrhus in Syria, in the later part of the 3th century. According to the Roman Martyrology, Cosmas and his brother Damian, together with Anthimus, Leontius, Euprepius were martyred under Diocletian (284-313). The Byzantine liturgy has the feast of Cosmas and Damian twice: on July 1 and on Nov 1. Probably at the site of the 6th Station of the Way of the Cross (= Veronica wipes the face of Jesus) there was a monastery of SS. Cosmas and Damian, built between 548 and 563. In the Crusaders' period, the street was known as St Cosmas Street.

Cosmas and Damianus, SS: Sept 26 in Mart. Rom. The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has their feast 'in Bitaseuri pago' - in the village of Beit-Sahur - on October 17.

Cosmus = Cosmas, the unmercenary physician.

Costarica-pilgrims. Three Japanese terrorists, acting on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, attacked at the airfield of Lod a plane on April 30, 1971. Of the 25 casualties many were pilgrims from Costarica.

Costigan, Irish. This man explored the Dead Sea in an open boat in July 1835. He fell ill, and died in Jerusalem in the Latin convent.

Cotta Piere, from Nice in France. He was parish priest at Ramailah, he died at the end of 1862.

Coüasnon Charles, Dominican priest, architect. He was born in Rennes in 1904, he died at Jerusalem on Friday, Nov 12, 1976. He came to Jerusalem in 1951. His plans for the restoration of the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre were agreed upon by the three communities: the Greek-Orthodox, the Armenian, the Latin. This mutual understanding was in 1959. - Coüasnon built the monastery 'Emmanuel’of the Benedictine Sisters in Bethlehem; he restored the Basilica of St. Anne, which was damaged by the war of 1967; he restored the Crusaders' Church at Abu-Gosh.

Council of the Holy Bishops, and priests, and deacons in the city of Rome. In the first year of the reign of Decius, the infidel... and Germanos was archbishop of Jerusalem. And this Council was assembled because of Benates (or BETNAS, or NOVATUS?). The bishops anathematized Benates. The assembling of the Council against Benates took place on the 12th of the month of T‚ksh‚sh (Ethiopian Synaxarium) - Emperor Decius ruled from 248 to 251.

Councils (Six): The Palestinian-Georgian calendar has the commemoration of six councils, on April 22. On Sept 26 the same calendar has 'in the church of the Resurrection, the memory of four councils'. - A Syriac calendar has such a memory at the end of February, it means on Wednesday of the fourth week before the Fast of Lent.

Council I of Constantinia (= Constantinople). This Council is 'saluted'by the Ethiopian Synaxarium on Yakatit 1. This Council was convoked by Emperor Theodosius I(379-395), against the heresy of Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, who named the Holy Spirit a created thing. The meetings were in 381.

Coward Charles. This sergeant major in the Royal Artillery of Britain, was taken prisoner by the Germans in 1940 and sent to a work camp in the Auschwitz area (Poland). He organised the escape of some 400 Jews from Auschwitz. -Coward and his wife visited Israel on several occasions, and in 1962 he planted a sapling in the Avenue of the Righteous Gentiles at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. 'The Password is Courage' is the title of a book, written by John Castle about Coward Charles. Coward died at the end of 1977.

Crescentius, one of the 70 disciples. According to the Melkite liturgy his memory is on July 30, together with: Silas, Silvanus, Epainetes, Andronikus. - Crescentius followed the apostle St. Paul and came to Galatia.

Cresson Warder, consul of the United States at Jerusalem in the 19th century. Cresson was a Christian who converted to Judaism.

Crowfoot J. W., archaeologist. He ascribed in 1927-28 remains of a city wall and of a western gate in Jerusalem to no earlier than the Hellenistic period (= late 4th cent. - 37 BC).

Cuartus, one of the 70 (72) disciples, bishop of Berytus (Beirut), according to the Greek list. - The Roman Martyrology does not mention Cuartus.

Curseto Bonaventura. This Franciscan bought from the Turks the stone, upon which Mary sat after her collapse at the meeting with Jesus (4th Station), and he placed this stone above the main entrance of the Franciscan Convent on Mount Sion. This information is related in 'Den Godvruchtigen Pelgrim ofte Jerusalemsche Reyse' (1649) of Surius Bernardin. The chapel had the name Koleta el Adra, the Collapse of the Virgin.

Cynegius. He was sent in 401 by Empress Eudoxia to Gaza. (Vita S. Porphyrii, auct. Marco diac., c. IX, n. 69) (AA.SS. Feb 26)

Cyprus, 25 Franciscan Martyrs near Cyprus in 1426. The Sultan Baursai-esh-sherif, Seyf-el-din, threatened Cyprus with 33 ships. He attacked a Venetian ship, that transported 25 Franciscans to the Holy Land. The Franciscan Martyrology remembers their death on August 22.

Cyra of Syria, hermit nun. Aug 3; Feb 28. Compare: Marana and Cyra (and also Kyra).

Cyria, the virgin, martyr. Together with Maria, Martha, Barberia and Marcia, the virgin Cyria was converted to Christianity and adopted the ascetic life. When the governor of Caesarea, Palestine, heard about them, the 5 were martyred in 304. - The Greek liturgy has the feast on June 6. The Roman Martyrology mentions on June 5: martyrdom of Zenais, CYRIA, Valeria and Marcia.

Cyriaca. She was the sister or the cousin of Photine, the Samaritan woman of Jn 4, 1-42.

Cyriac-Judah: see Cyriacus of Jerusalem.

Cyriacus of Jerusalem. He discovered the Holy Cross in Jerusalem, and gave it to Constantine the Great. Later Cyriacus was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem. At the time of Julian the Apostate (361-363), he refused to renounce his faith. He suffered martyrdom in Jerusalem in 361. - The Martyrologium Romanum has his memory on May 4; the Greek liturgy on Oct 18; the Palestinian-Georgian calendar has this Cyriacus on March 31 and on Sept 16. He is also called Cyriac-Judah.

Cyriacus, bishop of Ancona (Italy), Saint. Little is known about him. When he was still a Jewish Rabbi, he revealed to Helen the place where the cross in Jerusalem was hidden. He was baptized and became bishop of Ancona. He returned to Palestine, and was martyred in Jerusalem in the time of Emperor Julian the Apostate (361-363) in 361. The Martyrology Romanum has his Memory on May 4. (Compare: Cyriacus of Jerusalem)

Cyriacus, the Recluse. He was born in Corinth in 449. As a young man he went to Palestine and became a monk, joining St. Euthymius the Great. Afterwards he was a disciple of St. Gerasimus near the Dead Sea. Cyriakus inhabited several monasteries. His favourite home was St Chariton's Cave in the wilderness of Tekoa. There Cyriakus died in 557. - The Greek liturgy has his feast on Sept 29. The AA. SS, place his death in 556.

Cyriacus of Souka, Saint. He is also named Cyriacus the Recluse (Sept 29). The Palestinian-Georgian calendar venerates him on Sept 9. As Cyriacus lived for a long time in the Old Laura, he is also named Cyriakus of the Old Laura. The Old Laura is also named called Laura of St. Chariton near Tekoa.

Cyriakus, confessor: Not identified. The Typicon of Saint Sabas mentions Cyriakus, the ascetic of the [aura of Saint Sabas on Jan 24. (Dmitrievski, Typica, 11, p. 39)

Cyriakus, hegumenos. Died in 566. An epitaph in mosaic, which was discovered in 1911 at Jericho, mentions Cyriakus as 'benefactor of the Church Nea of Theotokos, which is in Jerusalem'. (Revue Biblique, 1911, p. 286)

Cyril of Alexandria, St. Bishop, theologian, Father and Doctor of the Church; born in Egypt, second half of the 4th century, died Alexandria, June 27, 444. His feast is on Feb 9 in the Western Church; on June 9 among the Greeks. Cyril was the nephew of Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria. Cyril was apparently convinced of the guilt of St. John Chrysostom, and he was present at his deposition by the Synod of Chalcedon. Cyril studied the Holy Scriptures in Jerusalem under the direction of Bishop John I (389-415). Cyril expropriated the Jews and expelled them from Alexandria. - Synaxaries of the Greek Church and the Palestinian-Georgian calendar have the feast on June 9. There was also a feast on June 20 in the Basilica of the Resurrection in Jerusalem, according to the Palestinian-Georgian calendar. The Melkite liturgy venerates him on June 9.

Cyril of Jerusalem. He was born at Jerusalem in 315, he was consecrated bishop of Jerusalem in 349. He spent most of his episcopacy in fighting the Arians. Sixteen years he spent in exile, partly in Tarsus. The last time he was banished by the Emperor Valens. Cyril is remembered for his Catecheses, which are instructions for candidates to baptism. Cyril died at Jerusalem in 3861387. Greek and Roman liturgies have his feast on March 18. His memory on March 18 was in the 'Church of the Apostles' (Apostoleion), which was probably adjacent to the Church of the Eleona on the Mount of Olives. - Cyril was buried in the Church of the Eleona (Revue Eleona, Oct 1975 p. 6-8).

Cyril the Deacon. He served as a deacon in Heliopolis (Baalbek in Phoenicia), at the time of Julian the Apostate (361-363). He destroyed numerous idols. He was martyred in 362.

Cyril II. He was the first Greek Patriarch (1845-1872) to establish his residence in Jerusalem. In previous times, the Patriarch of Jerusalem lived in the 'Phanar' of Constantinople and visited Jerusalem only rarely. This transfer of residence to Jerusalem was perhaps due to the persuasion of the Russian Government. Russia needed the cooperation of the Greek Patriarchate for its religious penetration in the Holy Land. - In 1849 Cyril established in Jerusalem a printing press for his community's needs.
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