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Er det muligt for Merkur anno 2009 at være en konkurrencedygtig bank såvel som en bank med stærk social profil?
En bæredygtig bank
Camilla Nygaard Kristensen – 252455
Center for Virksomhedskommunikation, Århus Universitet
Vejleder: Michael Dimke
Afleveret: 23. marts 2009
1. INDLEDNING 7
1.1 Problemformulering 9
2. PRÆSENTATION AF METODE og TEORI 11
2.1 CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) 11
2.2 Strategiske analyser og modeller 12
2.3 Kvalitativ / Kvantitativ undersøgelse 13
2.3.1 Validitet og Reliabilitet 14
2.3.2 Overvejelser og evaluering på undersøgelsesmetoder 15
2.4 Udvælgelse af virksomhedscase 16
2.5 Grundlæggende overvejelser om afgrænsning og teori 16
2.6 Struktur 17
3. CSR – Corporate Social Responsibility 18
3.1 Baggrunden 19
3.1 Definitionen af CSR 20
3.2 Social ansvarlighed i et strategisk perspektiv 22
3.2.1 Risiko ved implementering af CSR 25
3.3 Social ansvarlighed og stakeholder perspektivet 25
3.4 CSR i kommunikationssammenhæng 27
3.5 CSR Kommunikation 28
3.5.1 At vælge den ’rigtige’ målgruppe 29
3.5.2 Direkte og indirekte kommunikation 31
3.6 Opsamling 33
4. Virksomhedsbeskrivelse af Merkur 35
4.1 Historisk baggrund for Merkur 35
4.2 Vision og mission 35
4.3 Idégrundlag 36
4.4 Organisationsstruktur og kultur 37
4.5 Merkurs aktiviteter 38
5. Globaliseringen og det postmoderne samfund 40
5.1 Det postmoderne samfund 40
5.2 Globalisering 44
5.3 Opsamling 48
6. Den strategiske analyse 49
6.1 Analyse af fjernmiljøet ved hjælp af PESTEL-analyse 49
6.1.1 Den politiske fremtid 50
6.1.2 Den økonomiske fremtid 52
6.1.3 Den sociokulturelle fremtid 53
6.1.4 Den teknologiske fremtid 54
6.1.5 Den miljømæssige fremtid 55
6.1.6 Den lovgivende fremtid 56
6.2 Analyse af nærmiljøet ved hjælp af Five Forces 57
6.2.1 Truslen fra nye konkurrenter 58
6.2.2 Købernes forhandlingsstyrke 59
6.2.3 Leverandørernes forhandlingsstyrke 60
6.2.4 Konkurrencen i banksektoren 61
6.3 Succesfaktorer i Merkurs nærmiljø 63
6.4 Opsamling 65
7. Intern strategisk analyse af Merkur 67
7.1 Værdikæden 67
7.1.1 Produktudvikling 69
7.1.2 Indkøb 70
7.1.3 Produktion 71
7.1.4 Markedsføring og salg 72
7.1.5 Service 74
7.1.6 Menneskelige ressourcer 74
7.2 Kernekompetencer 75
7.3 Opsamling 76
8. SWOT– en opsamling 78
8.1 SWOT-analyse 78
8.1.1 Muligheder hos Merkur (O) 79
8.1.2 Truslerne inden for Merkurs nærmiljø (T) 80
8.1.3 Styrker internt hos Merkur (S) 81
8.1.4 Svagheder hos Merkur (W) 83
8.2 Opsamling 84
9. Revurdering af strategien 86
9.1 Generiske strategier 86
9.1 Differentieringsstrategi i Merkur 88
9.2 Kommunikationsanalyse 89
9.2.1 Den direkte kommunikation 90
9.2.2 Den indirekte kommunikation 92
9.3 Kommunikativ perspektivering 93
9.4 Opsamling 96
10. Konklusion 97
10.1 Besvarelse af problemformulering 100
Antal anslag: 146.912Abstract
During the recent years we have seen an increasing number of companies working with CSR (Corporate social responsibility). Many companies choose to implement CSR, as strategic CRS measures may help securing an ethic and socially oriented trustworthiness together with goodwill and confidence in the company. At the same time the society to a certain extent places increasing demands on the companies to act socially responsible and therefore when it comes to the license-to-operate of the companies the companies have to pay attention to the most essential stakeholders, i.e. the politicians, NGOs and the mass media.
CSR is also being implemented in the banking industry, and on the Danish market we see commercial banks which choose to position and differentiate from other commercial banks by means of social and ethic goals. No wonder that parts of the banking sector look with great interest at the opportunities that CSR offers other industries. Since a number of years the banking industry suffers from a loss of image and trustworthiness due to more reasons, i.e. tough shake-outs, inscrutable customer fees, unfavourable comments etc. Another element is the increasing competition on the Danish banking market, and the present financial crisis has left and still leaves its marks, as we have experienced several bank collapses and mergers in an attempt to stabilise the banking sector. By using a CSR focus the banks can create new opportunities to turn the attention to softer, more human sides of the companies and in this way win trustworthiness, goodwill and possibly market shares from the consumers and the cooperative partners. This focus will be a central topic in my thesis.
Merkur that I have chosen to make a study of is the largest sustainable cooperative savings bank in Denmark. It is operating on a niche market and focuses on promoting a sustainable society development on the basis of social and ethical guidelines. Bank lending is only granted within principles dealing with environment and ecology, social projects and culture and teaching. In spite of the strongly differentiated social and ethic profile of Merkur a weakness can be seen in relation to the communication strategy of the bank. Put into reality social responsibility can be difficult to communicate – a dilemma arises as the consumers make great demands of the companies to act socially responsible, and at the same time they do not too much communication about CSR.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the following problem statement; how is it possible for Merkur annum 2009 to be both a competitive bank and a bank with a strong social and ethical profile? For this reason I want to work out a thorough analysis and evaluation of the strategy of Merkur with special focus on social responsibility. In continuation of this I want to look into the communicative challenges that the business foundation and strategy of the cooperative savings bank give.
This thesis concludes that the ongoing financial crisis and the trend from the surrounding society give Merkur a number of opportunities and also threats. Merkur has created a strong position on the market, as the bank has not aimed at areas as risk-bearing building projects and risk-bearing investments as is the fact for many other banks. Consequently they have the opportunity to capture more market shares. Furthermore there is a greater focus on sustainability and social responsibility in society which also gives Merkur a larger subsistence legitimacy in relation to its strongly differentiated social and ethic profile. At the same time the financial crisis and the structure of the banking sector is a threat for Merkur. The strong concentration of banks is being deteriorated by the crisis due to the many mergers, collapses and takeovers. That means that it is difficult for the small banks to do business and the competition increases.
Furthermore, I have identified that during the years Merkur has developed a strong socially and ethically differentiated banking profile. It has developed special core competences within product development through cooperation between other international (and larger) sustainable banks. Merkur has also developed expert competencies within its niche area with sustainable financing in its capacity of many years of work in the banking sector. Moreover Merkur has opted out of real sales at consultancy service which also makes the bank stand out against traditional banks.
Finally, I conclude that the greatest weakness of Merkur is the communication strategy which, if improved can have positive consequences for the position of Merkur on the market. Especially during times of financial crisis it is important for a small and successful cooperative savings bank to be able to differentiate in order for future customers and stakeholders to make a distinction the bank from possible competitors – especially when the competition is as concentrated and intense as is the case now. A successful visible external communication could consolidate the success of the bank and brace it even better for the meeting with the future. It may sound paradoxical as the bank has a strong, deep-rooted profile and also several successful stories together with sympathetic announcements to communicate. It is a small bank and not visible in the street. If Merkur wants to be more visible, more targeted methods must be applied. More over the thesis concludes that the change of communication strategy most act on its socially and ethically differentiated banking profile with a direct and indirect communication with its stakeholders.
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