South Lewis High School – Mr. Comet Living Environment Unit 4 Note Packet




НазваSouth Lewis High School – Mr. Comet Living Environment Unit 4 Note Packet
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A Better Look at the Structural Sub-Units




Image from: http://www.accessexcellence.com/RC/VL/GG/basePair2.html


History of the Molecule


--


--


** Consists of two chains of nucleotide units in a twisted ladder-like structure. (resembles a spiral staircase)


--


--


--

-- Only 2 combinations of base pairs can form the rungs of the DNA molecule.

Adenine - Thymine (A-T) AND Guanine – Cytosine (G-C)


--This specific matching up of the nitrogenous bases is called complementary base pairing.


DNA is able to _________________ itself.


How does DNA form duplicates of itself during mitosis and meiosis?


1.


2.


A
view of DNA replication




Image from: http://www.accessexcellence.com/RC/VL/GG/dna_replicating.html


Usefulness of the Watson-Crick Model


A.


B.


C.




Rosalind Franklin James Watson and Francis Crick


Image from: http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/16/3/2/1/pwcrit1_03-03

Image from: http://www.achievement.org/achievers/wat0/large/wat0-001.jpg


RNA__________________________________


--


How does RNA differ in structure from DNA?


1.


2.


3.


Types of RNA





  1. mRNA (messenger RNA)




  1. tRNA (transfer RNA)




  1. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)




Image from: http://www.accessexcellence.com/RC/VL/GG/rna2.html


How are proteins synthesized from a DNA template?


  1. DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of mRNA from RNA nucleotides in the nucleus.


transcription:


2. mRNA molecules carrying a specific code determined by the base sequence of the DNA template move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.



  1. Strands of mRNA carrying codons transcribed from DNA, move to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.



codon:


triplet:


4. mRNA strands become associated with rRNA on the ribosomes. (rRNA


--


5. Different triplets of nitrogenous bases in tRNA molecules pick up specific amino acids in the cytoplasm and carry them to

mRNA at the ribosomes. (tRNA -- I want aa.)


6. Amino acids are put into position on the ribosome with instructions from the triplet codes of tRNA and mRNA.


7. With the aid of enzymes and ATP (energy), the

amino acids are bonded to form a polypeptide chain (protein) on the ribosome.



Image from: http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C08/C08Links/gened.emc.maricopa.edu/Bio/BIO181/BIOBK/protein_synthesis.gif

8. This protein formation is what directs metabolic activity in any cell.


** One gene codes for one polypeptide chain.


gene =


** Since the sequence of nucleotides in DNA determines the sequence of nucleotides in messenger RNA, DNA ultimately determines the sequence of amino acids in specific proteins. The specificity of enzymes is dependent on their protein makeup, and, since the individuality of a cell is largely a function of the enzymes it possesses, it is evident that DNA determines the individuality and function of an organism.


The work of a cell is carried out by the many different kinds of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Proteins are long, folded molecules made up of up to 20

different kinds of amino acids which interact to produce specific protein shapes.


The specific shape of the protein (exs. enzymes and hormones) determines the specific function of that protein.


Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.

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