Chapter 21 Study Guide key!

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Chapter 21 Study Guide KEY!

Test Date: _______

Be sure to know the following terms, concepts and people. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS FORM!!!!

  1. Understand the Mughal Empire, its rulers and their impact on the region. Pages 609-610

The Mughal Empire was made up of Turkish Muslims who invaded India, conquered the region and developed a kingdom in North India.

  1. Who are Akbar and Babar? How were they important? Pages 610 Babur was the first Mughal emperor and developed trade routes-this was the beginning of the Mughal Empire. Akbar was the 3rd Mughal emperor, he was strong and intelligent, and he included both Hindus and Muslims in his government-tried to make peace, fair taxes and major supporter of the arts. Created Hindu poet position.

  2. Why did the British want to set up businesses in India? Page 611 To gain access to trade, raw materials and control the trade routes.

  3. What new technology did they bring to India? Page 611 Railroads, telegraphs, irrigation methods, legal system, schools and English as the official language.

  4. Which countries were never colonized by Britain? Page 612 Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan

  5. In what ways did the British influence India? 612 Through the use of English, schools, English legal system, missionaries came, merchants, new laws about land ownership, some Indians choose to adopt British culture altogether, others adopted some British customs and others choose to live just as they had before.

  6. Explain the Indian National Congress and Muslim League. Page 612 The INC was developed to protect the interests of the Indians especially during independence. ML-Developed by Muslims to offer them a forum for dealing with Muslim related issues.

  7. Who is Gandhi and what was he known for? Page 612-613 Major leader of nonviolent protests, through hunger strikes, labor strikes, he was called Mohandas or “great soul” was born in 1869 in India.

  8. What three types of governments are found in South Asia pages 615-617 Republics-Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and India Constitutional Monarchy-Bhutan and Nepal, Islamic Rule-Afghanistan, Parliamentary-Bangladesh and India

  9. How does overpopulation and poverty affect India? ( See notes) Many people do not have enough food, clean water, housing, adequate medical care and education choices, not enough jobs, pollution

  10. What types of pollutions affect India and what are the causes? (See notes) Air pollution-cars, factories, and use of unusual heating sources for cooking. Water-factory waste, raw sewage, pesticides, chemicals, trash, human debris.

  11. What does the infant mortality rate, literacy rate and GDP tell us about India? (notes) Infant mortality rate is 30.15 which is high, 30 babies per 1,000 die-this shows that the country is undeveloped or at least developing, does not have good or available healthcare, advanced technology. Literacy rate is 61% overall, men are higher at 74.6% and women MUCH lower at 46.8%-many people need the help of the children to farm and provide for the family. GDP per capita is 2400.00 which figures out to be less than 240.00 per month for a person to live on, many people are poor.

  12. What is the basis for India’s economy today? How has it changed? (notes) India has a mixed economy and big business and IT are new major businesses-many new customer service businesses have moved to India.

  13. What type of economy does India have today and how do people make their living? (notes) See 13 Most people live on (60%) subsistence farming, 29% live in cities and have about 40% have jobs in service and manufacturing

  14. How does the climate of India affect where people choose to live? Many people choose to live in areas where the climate allows them to farm, some live near the cities and climate does not matter so much,

  15. Explain India’s government system. Page 617-618 Who is the leader (what position, not which person) and how is the government organized? (Notes) India is a democracy or federal republic with a parliamentary portion. The official head of the government is the president; however the prime minister actually runs the government.

  16. Who are Dalits? Page 618 Untouchables who have only recently gained political power, today they have equal rights and special programs to help them with jobs and education.

  17. How does the caste system affect the people of India? Page 618 the caste system decides who a person will marry, what job they will have, who their friends are.

  18. Who is Indira Gandhi? Page 618 The first female prime minister in 1966 in India-the new constitution in India after their independence gave women new rights like running for office, voting.

  19. Explain the panchayat system and the three levels. Pages 618-619 1st level –represents the local village or group of villages, level 2 is made up of chiefs of many villages and level 3 represents an entire district. Some districts have more than 10 million people.

  20. How do most people of South Asia make their living? Page 622 Farming 2/3rd the population

  21. Explain the relationship between their employment and income and literacy rate. Page 622 Most people work farming and make just enough food to feed their families, many children are needed to stay at home and help on the farm. Many people do not have the opportunity to attend school; girls are less desired so fewer of them attend school-it is cultural.

23. Fill in the chart below, use pages 623-624

Economic Activity Log


Economic Activity and Major Businesses





Bhutan and Nepal


The Maldives

Tourism and Fishing


Farming, fishing and industry

Sri Lanka

Farming and tourism


IT, Business, farming

  1. What is the information technology? Page 624 The use of computers, software and the internet

  2. Explain the Green Revolution. Page 625 India was given the use of genetically improved seeds that would produce more food; however they required the use of pesticides that polluted the land and water.

  3. What is the importance of the Taj Mahal? Page 626 Was the burial site of Mumtaz Mahal the shahs wife.

  4. List the major literary works that the text discusses and explain why they are important. Page 627 the Mahabharata and the Ramayana

  5. What is Bollywood? (This is in the notes) What is the film and music industry like in India? Page 627 Bollywood is India’s version of Hollywood, movies are wildly popular in India and more than 15 million people attend each day. “Bollywood” is a play on words and takes the “B” from Bombay. They make more movies each year than the US!

  6. Why are there so many languages in India? What are the major languages listed? Page 627-628 India has been invaded several times and colonized once; the influence of these other cultures and ethnic groups has made India a diverse place.

  7. What are the two major languages, what percentage of the population speak them? Page 628 Indo-Aryan 75%, Dravidian 25%

  8. Define dialect and explain how that is significant in India. Page 627 a regional variety of a language, there are 18 official languages in India due to the influence of other countries and cultures.

  9. What religion plays an important part of Indian culture? Page 628 Hinduism

  10. Explain family life in India. Page 629 Many families live together with relatives-this is called an extended family, families often choose their children’s spouses and eat meals together, religion is central to daily life.

  11. What is a dowry? Page 629 Money or property given to the bride and groom to give them a start in life.

  1. Why was the founding of a Muslim nation so important to Mohammed Ali Jinnah? Page 631 He was interested in Muslims having a country of their own rather than sharing a country with Hindus. He had worked hard to see a Muslim nation created and was excited to see this in his lifetime.

  2. Where was Pakistan’s oldest civilization? Mohenjo Daro

  3. Fill in the chart below using the major events in Pakistan’s history.




712 AD

1000 AD

  1. Why was Pakistan created in 1947? Page 631- To create a Muslim country.

  2. Why are rivers an important resource in Pakistan? Page 633-634

  3. What is the Mangla Dam? Tarbela Dam? Page 634

  4. What languages are spoken in Pakistan? Page 634

  5. What religion do most Pakistanis follow? Page 635

  6. Explain the conflict between India and Pakistan involving Kashmir. Page 635

  7. Who was Benazir Bhutto? Page 635

  8. How are the economies of South Asian Countries changing? Pages 622-625

  9. What is being done to improve the economies of South Asia? Pages 622-625

  10. What is jute? Page 623

  11. What are Sindhi, Urdu and Punjabi? Page 634

  12. Extra space ….just in case.

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