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| Analysis of Korean Author Names in Publications: for considering headings for persons in NACSIS-CAT1|
The purpose of this paper is to consider headings for persons in the database which include Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) author names. Especially, the discussions in this paper highlight the fact that CJK authors have many different names.
Let me start with introducing two features of CJK author names. First they can be described in Chinese characters, but the way they are pronounced varies between China, Korea, and Japan. Furthermore, because there are different methods for transliterating, one Chinese character has many kinds of readings. This will hereinafter be described in detail. The second feature is that many historically important authors appear with their different names in classical books. Therefore, based on the premise of the existence of so many diverse variants, headings of author names in authority records should be discussed. Clear rules, which governs which should be registered as the authorized heading among variant headings, are necessary. The subject is dealt with from a viewpoint of rules and access points2.
This paper especially deals with Korean personal author names in a Japanese database: NACSIS-CAT. This is just one example of a foreign database that must deal with CJK author names. At first the problems which NACSIS-CAT has faced are propounded, and then existing rules in Japan, Nippon Cataloguing Rules (NCR), are examined. According to NCR, it is important that how author names are written in books. Therefore, one of main points is an analysis of author names in publications. Finally, the access points will be discussed to solve the problems in searching NACSIS-CAT.
NACSIS-CAT, as you may know, is the biggest bibliographic utility in Japan3. National Center for Science Information System (NACSIS) developed a union catalogue database system for university libraries in 1987. Later, National Institute of Information (NII) succeeded the system in 2001. NACSIS-CAT has added its members, and now 1,139 libraries belong to the system. It covers almost all of the university libraries in Japan. NACSIS-CAT holds 7,401,041 bibliographic data as of April 1 20064 and the number of records is increasing day by day. In addition, NACSIS has used this database for Inter Library Loan (ILL) since 1992. We librarians have gotten a lot of benefit from NACSIS-CAT/ILL. In 1997 NACSIS started the long-expected service, OPAC on the web. It called Webcat5. Along with Webcat, Webcat-Plus6 is also available now. This system is useful both for students and researchers when they search academic books or serials. Webcat is famous for its high quality and large quantities of data.
However, there are some problems in searching Webcat or Webcat-puls. Author name searches are not very thorough enough. Results of a search come out differently depending on words that users have chosen7.
The question is why such inconsistency occurs. Tonai8 points out that the number of name authority file records is decreasing, as is the rate of name fields in bibliographic records being linked to name authority records. There is no disagreement on this point that authority records in NACSIS-CAT don’t work well. It is because member libraries don’t always maintain these records properly, rather they don’t have incentives to do so.
But, it is necessary to consider this problem from different viewpoints. Over the past decades a substantial number of studies have been made with regard to Chinese characters code sets, especially for how we treat different character sets in CJK countries. The issue which must be examined next is transliteration of author names into peculiar character set in each country such as Kana in Japan and Hangul in Korea, and representation as variant headings.
In the introduction, it was mentioned that CJK authors can be transcribed in Chinese characters, but their pronunciations are different by country. That is to say, names of certain authors can be read according to three kinds of pronunciation: Chinese, Japanese and Korean pronunciations. It is a misconception that Chinese author names can be pronounced only in Chinese. Chinese author names can be read by Japanese and Korean pronunciations too. It must be noted that pronunciation and readings are different. Readings are the characters which are written to show how to pronounce Chinese characters. There are, at least, three kinds of scripts to describe pronunciations: the English Alphabets, Japanese Kana characters and Korean Hangul. Therefore, one author name have nine kind of readings logically, as follows: Chinese pronunciation written in the Alphabets, Chinese pronunciation written in Kana Characters, Chinese pronunciation written in Hangul, Japanese pronunciation written in the Alphabets, Japanese pronunciation written in Kana Characters, Japanese pronunciation written in Hangul, Korean pronunciation written in the Alphabets, Korean pronunciation written in Kana characters and Korean pronunciation written in Hangul. In fact, there might be more than nine kinds depending on transliteration methods.
The critical point is which pronunciation and characters should be adopted as the authorized heading in the author name authority records. Tillett9 described “In order to be of most use to the library users in each country, the scripts should be the scripts they can read!” For example, rules applied by the Library of Congress provide that Chinese characters should be transliterated to the Alphabet. There is another example; according to rules which are adopted by the National Library of Korea, Hangul should be used10. These examples can explain that characters of authorized headings depend on the language familiar to users of database.
NACSIS-CAT, on the other hand, adopts another rule that authorized headings should be chosen on the basis of the main language which an author uses in his or her works. The rules applied by NACSIS-CAT don’t limit characters to one kind. The problems which NACSIS-CAT has faced might offer lead us to take further steps for better rules for an authority records
Here is a suggestion about the ideal form for authorized heading in CJK author name authority records. Three kinds of characters should be registered as follows: Chinese characters, the characters familiar to most of the users of a database, and the characters which are mainly used by the authors in his or her works. As far as Korean author names in NACSIS-CAT are concerned, Kana characters and Hangul should be chosen. That is to say, authorized headings should be registered in parallel with three kinds of characters: Chinese characters, Kana character, and Hangul. Actually, Chinese author names have been controlled by Chinese characters, Kana characters and the Alphabets. Therefore, Korean author names also could be controlled in a similar way.
Now, let us look closely at the rule applied by NACSIS-CAT. First of all, NCR87R has to be inquired because NACSIS-CAT depends on it. NCR stands for Nippon Cataloging Rules which was constitute by Japan Library Association. Now Japanese libraries use the 1987 edition which has been revised several times. We call it NCR87R.11
“The principle of transcription” is adopted in NCR87R, as “transcribe letters as they appear in the source.” (18.104.22.168) In case the author has different names, the way to choose an authorized heading for author name depends on the first description. NCR87R regulated that heading for persons also should be chosen according to the first description (22.214.171.124). Characters transcribed as headings are limited to only Kana characters concerning CJK books, but Chinese characters are acceptable in the necessity of identification (23.3.1).
NCR87R was revised in 200512. One of its main purposes was to add a new rule for classical books. For example, the exceptional rule 126.96.36.199A allows to describe real author names contrary to the principle of transcription mentioned above as far as Chinese classical books are concerned.
Though NACSIS-CAT depends on NCR87R at base, there are some exceptional rules. Authorized headings of CJK author names are described both in Chinese characters and Kana Characters as a general rule. In addition, exceptional rules for Korean books make the matter more complicated. In “Guideline for cataloguing Korean books,”13 it is defined as “in general transcript letters as they appear in the first record, however exceptionally predominant name must be described in most famous letters.” There are three kinds of headings of persons in NACSIS-CAT. In general, the guideline recommends Chinese characters with reading by the Hangul, or only Hangul when Chinese characters don’t appear on books. Chinese characters with reading by Kana character are allowed when a person is famous in Japan.
Actually various kinds of headings are founded in NACSIS-CAT. Table 1 is the proportions for each heading in 200214. The samples were found in a hundred forty five books of our library. A hundred four authors names appear in these books, but eight of those are not registered in authority records. Consequently ninety six authority records were examined. In the record of Korean books, Chinese characters with Hangul is 49.0 %, only Hangul is 35.4 % and Chinese characters with Kana readings is 15.0 %. On the other hand, in the record of Japanese books, Chinese character with Hangul is 5.6%. Chinese character with Kana readings is 88.9 %.
It may be worth mentioning, in passing, that how rules of other libraries in Japan work under NCR87R. There is a research output on how each form is chosen in seven agencies: four leading libraries, two wholesale booksellers which make MARC records and one bibliographical utility in Japan15. One library doesn’t have a certain rule for the heading of the same author, and the others controlled the heading in particular ways. NACSIS-CAT, one public library and one wholesale bookseller make clearly state that headings should depend on the first record. As for the readings, five agencies chose Korean pronunciation by Kana characters where known, one library uses Japanese pronunciation and NACSIS-CAT uses Hangul. In other words, there are various ways to make the headings in Japan alone. What makes NACSIS-CAT so special is that Hangul is adopted as the readings of headings. This might be the reason that NACSIS-CAT deal with more Korean books written in Hangul than any other database. And they aspire to share the author-name authority file with other countries. But inconsistency of their authority records might obstruct their plan.
Let us return to our main subject. The inconsistency in NACSIS-CAT is caused by the rules that headings of author names depend on the first description without limiting kinds of characters to be used. This will lead us into further examination that how Korean author names are written in books.
3. Korean author names on today’s publications --Readings of Korean author names--
In the preceding section, it was emphasized that headings of author names depend on how author names appears in the book which was catalogued for the first time. This section deals with how Korean author names are written in books. On that occasion it is important to note that applying one Hangul character to one particular Chinese character is impossible because there are more than one Chinese characters being equivalent to one Hangul character.
This section is a revision and expansion of Takahashi’s earlier studies16. Here is an analysis based upon one hundred forty five books published in Korea and catalogued at Hitotsubashi University in 2002, how Chinese characters are applied to Korean author names.
Table 2 is about which type of scripts are used in Korean books. Korean author names appear in different scripts in each part of a book: title page, colophon, cover and spin. For example, an author name of “Han-Il kŭndae munhak ŭi kwallyŏn yangsang sillon” is described in Chinese characters on title page, cover, and spine, but his name on colophon is described in Hangul “Kim, Yunsik” (Figure 117). Therefore, in this cases there is no trouble in translating Korean into Chinese. Such cases accounts for about 13.1%. 28.3% of author names in Korean books appear in only Chinese characters. In this case we can change Chinese characters into Hangul without difficulty. 54.5% of author names in Korean books are written in only Hangul. However, of those cases, fortunately one-third of names were written in Chinese characters in author introductions, i.e., the books whose author name don’t appear with Chinese character is reduced to 36%.
There is another problem regarding Japanese books. Table 3 is the results of research upon books written by sixty two Korean residents in Japan. Almost all of them had their names printed in Chinese characters to be read in Japanese. However, of these authors’, 3.2% adopted Chinese characters without Japanese pronunciation. There are two ways to read Chinese characters in Japanese and Korean pronunciations18. For example, the Chinese characters of Kang Sang-jung(1950- ), a political scientist of Tokyo University, is pronounced “Kyo, Shouchu” in Japanese; but he is well known by “Kan, Sanjun” in Korean pronunciations. In his books, his names are printed in Chinese characters with Kana characters printed beside each character to be read in Korean pronunciations (Figure 219). 88.7% of Korean authors have Chinese characters with the Korean way of reading by Kana character, and 3.2% have Chinese character with the Japanese way of reading.
Table 3 is based on the data of 2002. But recently new pattern in notation of author names has been found. A Korean TV drama got a high popularity in Japan in 2004. The leading actor, who became popular because of this drama, was introduced in only Kana characters. But most Japanese don’t know how to write his name in Chinese characters. After the success of this drama, many Korean dramas and movies have been introduced and the original novels or scripts have also been published in Japan. In some of those books, author names appear in only Kana characters (Figure 320). So there are some cataloguing records whose author names and headings are written in only Kana characters. We should pay attention to this new tendency that Kana characters are used more often.
Considering these data, there is a high possibility that Korean author names can be written in four kinds of characters: Chinese character, Hangul, Japanese Kana character and the Alphabet. It becomes clear that we don’t know how to write the author names in Chinese characters in as many as one third of Korean publications. Therefore, it is necessary to define rules to register headings not by a principle of transcription but in other ways.
4. Korean author names in classical books -- Real names of Korean authors --
In ancient Asia, people were given special names, Zi21, when he became twenty years old, or she got married. Moreover, there was another different type of name, Hao22, similar to pen names23. In this paper, the term “pseudonymous names” means both special names and pen names. It is said that these different names were often used in classical books, because it was considered more polite to use literary or pen names rather than use real names24. The next focus is whether or not the real name can be served as ideal form of authorized heading.
In this respect, NCR 87R was revised in 2005. After that, real author names can be chosen by way of exception as for Chinese classical books (188.8.131.52A). In the case of cataloguing Chinese classical books, the method developed by the Documentation and Information Center for Chinese Studies has prevailed in Japan25, and the method recommends adopting real author names. It might be the reason why NCR recognized the exception. This change of rule gives us the option that real author names can be chosen as description. That is to say, the real author names also can be registered as headings. Although this rule refers only to Chinese classical authors, it could be also applied to Korean classical authors.
There is a question whether real author names can be known easily or not. The materials treated herein are derived from Niigata University Library26 and Niigata Prefectural Library27. The following is how we selected books to be examined. These books were written by Korean authors before the 19 Century and were made with special old paper in a traditional way. Place of publications were not taken into consideration. To put it plainly, these books include Korean, Japanese and Chinese old books. There are thirty one books, but the three books whose authors are unknown have to be excluded, which means we narrowed the fields down to twenty eight books to be examined. The results are presented in table 4. We found out author names appear in the twenty three books. The other five books don’t show their author names on the regulated sources. In that case, we had to see reference books to find out who wrote these books. And then, real author names were located. Now we focus on the twenty three books with author names.
Of the twenty three books, twelve are Korean classical books. Real author names appear in four books; on the other hand, in the other eight only pseudonymous names were used. Of the four books with real names, two were written by feudatories. The emperor gave them orders for writing or editing. Their names usually appear not in the first page but in the prefaces with their titles. It was a proper way for feudatories to write their real names because they dedicated their books to the Emperor. Except these cases, many author names appear with only pseudonymous names in Korean classical books.
Let us turn now to the other eight books whose author names appear with their pseudonymous names. Although they are not real, titles of the books include the author names. They might not appear in the other sources. Take “P’oŭn Sŏnsaeng chip” as an example. P’oŭn is a pseudonymous name of Chŏng Mong-chu (1337-1392). Thus, the title --Anthology of Mr. P’oŭn-- includes the author name itself. This type is distinguishable in literature.
As for Japanese classical books, real author names appear in five books. In the other five books only pseudonymous names appear on these sources. There are two typical cases in which real author names appear in Japanese classical books. The first case is that real author names are printed in original books which were published in Korea. The fact that many books were made under the order of the emperor can explain this case. The second case is that Japanese books introduce authors with their real names in different places from original Korean books.
For example, the author of “Ŭnbong yasa pyŏllok”th is An Pang-jun (1573-1654). He was a scholar in the middle of the Chosŏn Dynasty(1392-1910). Ŭnbong was his pseudonymous name, while his real name was Pang-chun28. So the title includes the author’s pseudonymous name. When the book was published in Korea in 1663, he wrote his real name not on the first page of the text but on the last page. When it was published in Japan in 1850, the publisher attached an end paper with information about the real author name: “Chosen An Ho-shun cho” (Figure 429).
End paper in Japanese books is a paper attached verso of cover. It is divided into three parts with a frame each. Titles are written in the middle column in bigger characters. Author names are in the right, and publishers’ are in the left. Above the columns, publishing years can be found in some books. From end paper, we can often get important information about authors and publication. So NCR87R authorized end paper as the source.
NCR 87R enumerates title pages, colophon, spine and cover as the source (184.108.40.206A). But classical books in CJK have neither title pages or spines in general. Since covers were often replaced with new ones, they are not considered as fixed sources30. Therefore, as the source of classical books, the first page of the text, top of contents, preface, end of the text, title piece and end paper are also authorized. Generally speaking the first page of the text is considered the most reliable 31.
In Japan printing techniques were developed in the Edo period (1600-1867). There were publishers in three big cities: Edo, Kyoto and Osaka and also in other towns. At the beginning of the Edo era, they dealt with a lot of Chinese works which were written in Chinese characters. They duplicated these books using wooden blocks. Sometimes they added some marks beside Chinese characters so that Japanese people could read the language. These Chinese original books had end papers, though they sometimes appear on the next page of cover. Japanese publishers and authors followed the pattern of Chinese end paper. In later years they started to attach a piece of beautiful end paper to draw more attention from people independently of the style of original books. There is another reason why Japanese classical books had end papers. A regulation about publication was enacted in 1722. It obliged publishers in Edo city to write real author and publishers’ names on the end of the books. It is said that this was a turning point when the number of Japanese books with colophon increased. Actually, the new regulation was not followed properly. Few author names appeared in colophon, whereas publishers’ names were usually written there according to the regulation. Interestingly enough, it is not colophon but end paper where author names are found more often.32.
According to Table 5 which shows the result of examination about the use of end papers and colophons in each country, Japanese classical books have end paper more than Korean counterparts. It is said that few Korean classical books have colophon compared to Chinese and Japanese one33. The fact that many books had the end paper and colophon are peculiar to Japanese classical books. There might be a possibility that real author names can be found more easily in Japanese reproduced books than Korean original books.
Now let me sum up my main points about author names in classical books. In some cases only pseudonymous names appears in the regulated sources. There are not many samples, so it might be too early to draw a conclusion. But Korean author names in classical books appear more often with different names than with real names. One of the future tasks is collecting more of data on this point.
5. Conclusion -- Access points for a better search of author names --
When retrieving bibliographic data in NACSIS-CAT, only described author names and authorized headings are available, even though variant headings are registered in author name authority records. Variant headings are not access points for bibliographic data but only those for authority records. Thus, when users search authority records directly, these access points are effective. But it is not for the users searching bibliographic data. This fact causes many failures in searching by author names. If users could use these variant headings in authority records when they search Webcat or Webcat-plus, no small number of failures in search would be avoided. Some databases have retrieval system utilizing authority records. In Hitotsubashi Library’s database, retrieval terms are made from all the possible names registered in author name authority records. To solve the problems caused by inconsistency of various headings in NACSIS-CAT, the access point as which each heading is registered should be improved.
As a whole, the features of CJK personal names lead to the problems that it is necessary to deal with two types of different names. First, there is a possibility for author names to be written in four kinds of characters: Hangul, Chinese characters, Kana characters and the Alphabets. Second, both real names and pseudonymous names appear particularly in classical books. This fact causes problems when we chose authorized heading of author names.
From a viewpoint of rules which govern headings, NCR87R merely provides that the headings should be chosen according to its first description, which depends on how they were written in the book. The problems which NACSIS-CAT has been faced shows that registering no limitations on characters causes inconsistency. Two types of ideal forms for the authorized headings of CJK authors can be suggested. One is to use three kinds of characters in parallel: Chinese characters, the characters familiar to users of database, and characters which are mainly used by the authors in his or her works. Another is to adopt real names. From the analysis of Korean author names in publications it was made clear that these ideal forms cannot be derived from the description in the books. Therefore, by the rule, an ideal form for authorized heading should be provided, or improving access points would solve these problems.
This paper owes much to the thoughtful and helpful comments of Mr. Yoshinori Sato.
Thanks are also due to Ms. Takako Minamida for her assistance in translating.
I wish to express gratitude to the Hitotsubashi University Library, the Niigata University library and the Niigata Prefectual Library too.
This paper is a revision and expansion of earlier studies, Nanako Takahashi. The present state and the problem of the headings of Korean Author-Name Authority file in NACSIS-CAT: analysis of type of the character of author names and author profiles on the publications of Korea and Japan. Journal of Japan Society of Library and Information Science. vol. 51, no. 1, 2005, p.15-24.(in Japanese)
2 The conception of these words is according to definitions of FRAR. See: http://www.ifla.org/VII/d4/FRANAR-Conceptual-M-Draft-e.pdf (2006-04-30)
3 http://www.nii.ac.jp/CAT-ILL/contents/home.html (2006-04-30)
4 http://www.nii.ac.jp/CAT-ILL/contents/ncat_stat_transition.html (2006-04-30)
5 http://webcat.nii.ac.jp/ (2006-04-30)
6 http://webcatplus.nii.ac.jp/ (2006-04-30)
7 Morimoto, Hideyuki. Utility of NII Webcat Plus in North America: retrieval and idiosyncrasies of Webcat Plus bibliographic records. Journal of College and University Libraries. vol. 74, 2005, p. 19-27. (in Japanese)
8 Tonai, Yuzuru. What does the accumulation process of name authority records in the NII Union Catalog suggest to us? Journal of College and University Libraries. Vol.73 2005, p. 1-14. (in Japanese)
9 Tillet, Barbara B.. “A virtual international authority file”. Record of Workshop on Authority Control among Chinese, Korean and Japanese languages (CJK Authority 3). Tokyo, 2002-03, National Institute of Informatics in cooperation with National Diet Libray, Tokyo, National Institute of Informatics, 2002, p. 117-139.
10 Lee, Jae-sun. “Authority files in the National Library of Korea”. Record of Workshop on Authority Control among Chinese, Korean and Japanese language (CJK Authority 3). Tokyo, 2002-03, National Institute of Informatics in cooperation with National Diet Library, Tokyo, National Institute of Informatics, 2002, p. 47-64.
11 Nihon Toshokan Kyokai Mokuroku Iinkai. Nippon MokrokuKisoku (Nippon Cataloging Rules). 1987 nen kaitei 2 ed. Tokyo, Nihon Toshokan Kyokai, 2001, 397p.(in Japanese)
12 Nihon Toshokan Kyokai Mokuroku Iinkai. Nippon Mokroku Kisoku 1987 nenban kaitei 2 han tsuika oyobi shusei . Tokyo, Nihon Toshokan Kyokai, 2005, 103p.(in Japanese)
13 http://www.nii.ac.jp/CAT-ILL/manuals/korea_toriatsukai.pdf (2006-04-30)
14 Takahashi, op. cit., p. 15-24.
15 Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan Shoshi-bu(National Diet Library). Meisho Tenkyo no Kontororu (Name Authoricty control the 4th conference on bibliographic control). Tokyo, Nihon Toshokan Kyokai, 2004. p. 122-123. (in Japanese)
16 Takahashi, op. cit., p. 15-24.
17 Kim Yun-sik. Han-Il kŭndae munhak ŭi kwallyŏn yangsang sillonSŏul. Sŏul Taehakkyo Ch’ulp’anbu, 2001, 377 p.(in Korean) The holding library is the Hitotsubashi University Library.
18 Exactly speaking, it’s difficult to spell Japanese Kana character according to Korean pronunciation. It has not settled which is the right spelling of for Kim Sŏk-pŏm.; “Kimu, Sokupomu” or “Kimu, Soppomu” in the Korean way.
19 Kan, San-jun ; Morisu, Hiroshi. Nashonarizumu no Kokufuku. Tokyo, Suei-sha, 2002, 254 p. (Shuei-sha Shinsho, 0167C). (in Japanese) The holding library is the Hitotsubashi University Library.
20 Yun, Son-hi (Miyamoto, Naohiro et al., tr.) Utsukushiki Hibi. Tokyo, Nihon Hoso Kyokai, 2003, 2 v. (in Japanese)
21 It is called “Cha” in Korean and “Azana” in Japanese.
22 It is called “Ho” in Korean and “Go” in Japanese.
23 Morohashi, Tetsuji. Na oyobi meijitu ron. Tokyo bunrika daigaku bunka kiyo. vol. 4, 1931, p. 1-63. (in Japanese)
24 Lee, op. cit., p. 47-64.
25 Kyoto Digaku Jinbun Kagaku Kenkyujo Fuzoku Kanji Joho Kenkyu Senta (Documentation and Information Center for Chinese Studies). KansekiMokuroku kado no Torikata. Tokyo, Hoyu Shoten, 2005. 139 p. (in Japanese)
26 Niigata Daigaku Fuzoku Toshokan. Niigata Daigaku Shozo Kanseki Mokuroku. Niigata, Niigata Daigaku Fuzoku Toshokan, 1987-1989 vol. Jo. p. 543-546.
27 Niigata Kenritu Toshokan. Niigata Kenritsu Niigata Toshokan Shozo Kanseki Mokuroku. Niigata, Niigata Kenritu Niigata Toshokan, 1980, p.183.
th Kyujanggak . Kyujanggak Hangukpon tosŏ haeje. vol. sabu 1, Seoul, Sŏul Taehakkyo Kyujanggak; Pogyong Munhua-sa, 1993, p. 170-171. (in Korean) Yamaguchi, Masayuki. Tokugawa Jidai ni okeru Chosen Shoseki no Honkoku. Bunkyo no Chosen. vol. 49, 1929, p. 31. (in Japanese)
28 Hanʾguk yŏksa inmul sajŏn, Sŏul, Sŏkpʻil, 1998, p. 281. (in Korean) Hanʾguk Chŏngsin Munhwa Yŏnʾguwŏn. Hanʾguk inmul taesajŏn Sŏul, Chungang Ilbo Chungang M&B, 1999, p.1124-1123 (in Korean).
29 The holding library is the Niigata University Library
30 Nagasawa, Kikuya. Shinpen Wakan Kosho Mokuroku-ho. Tokyo, Kyuko Shoin, 1979, 56 p. (in Japanese)
31 NCR which was revised in 2005 made changes in the rule for priority of sources; title piece and cover are given more priority than before. But as far as author names are concerned, this revision will not make an impact on description, because there are few books whose author names are written on cover or title piece.
32Nakano, Mitsutoshi. Edo no Hanpon. Tokyo, Iwanami Shoten, 1995, p. 165-186. (in Japanese)
33 Fujimoto, Yukio.Various Problems in Korean Bibliography.Chosen Gakuho: Journal of the Academic Association of Koreanology in Japan. vol. 163, 1997, p. 1-19. (in Japanese)
Table 1. Characters of headings in NACSIS-CAT
Place of publication
Chinese characters and Hangul
Chinese characters and Kanacharacter by Japanese pronunciation
Chinese characters and Kanacharacter by Korean pronunciation
Chinese characters and Hangul
Chinese characters and Kanacharacter by Japanese pronunciation
Chinese characters and Kanacharacter by Korean pronunciation
Chiniese characters and alphabets
Table 2. Characters of Korean author names in each sources (Title page, colophon, cover, spine) of Korean books
27 have Chinese characters in introduction of authors27
only Chinese characters
Hangul and Chinese characters
The other types (alphabets etc.)
5 include Chinese characters
Table 3. Representation of Korean author names in Japanese books
only Chinese characters
Chinese characters and Kanacharacter by Korean pronunciation
Chinese characters, alphabets and Kanacharacter by Korean pronunciation
Chinese characters alphabets and Kanacharacter by Japanese pronunciation
Table 4. Korean author names in classical books
place of publications
nothing on the sources
Table 5. Source in classical books
place of publications
（The holding library: Hitotsubashi University Library）
（The holding library: Hitotsubashi University Library）
Title page Colophon
（The holding library: Niigata University Library）
На перечень вопросов (cat/C/aze/Q/3), подлежащих обсуждению в связи с рассмотрением третьего периодического доклада азербайджана...