Answer all of the questions for two of the following four cases. Be prepared to discuss all of them, though




НазваAnswer all of the questions for two of the following four cases. Be prepared to discuss all of them, though
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Animals


Answer all of the questions for two of the following four cases. Be prepared to discuss all of them, though.


1. True Friends. (See Steven Zak, “Ethics and Animals,” The Atlantic Monthly, March, 1989.) In 1986 members of a radical animal liberation group called True Friends illegally broke into the Sema, Inc., laboratories in Rockville, Maryland, and took four baby chimpanzees from among the facility’s 600 primates. The four animals were part of a group of thirty animals being used in hepatitis research, and had been housed in small stainless-steel cages with sealed glass doors called “isolettes.” A videotape produced by the True Friends showed other primates that had not been liberated. One rocked back and forth, banging violently against the side of the cage; another lay dead on the cage’s floor.


Sema, Inc., is a contractor for the National Institute of Health, the federal agency that funds most of the animal research in the United States. The NIH subsequently conducted an investigation into the conditions at the lab and concluded that the use of isolettes was justified to prevent the spread of disease among the infected animals.


Do you agree with the True Friends that the use of isolettes is wrong? The True Friends acted illegally, but was their act of civil disobedience justified by a violation of animal rights?


2. Animal Sacrifice. (See the article by Linda Greenhouse in The New York Times, June 12, 1993.) In the case of Church of Lukuni Babalu vs. City of Hialeah (1993), the Supreme Court of the U.S. ruled that a Florida city’s ban on ritual animal sacrifice violated the religious freedom of followers of the Santeria religion, an Afro-Cuban religion in which the sacrifice of animals plays a central role. (Religious freedom is protected by the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.) Santeria (pronounced sant-ah-REE-ya) is practiced by about 70,000 Cubans living in South Florida. The religion blends the traditional Yoruba religion (brought to Cuba by African slaves) with the Roman Catholic faith. Yoruba gods are identified with Catholic saints; Santeria means literally “the way of the saints”. Followers of the religion participate in Catholic sacraments, but also they kill chickens, pigeons, goats, sheep, and turtles in order to appeal to the gods and to express their devotion to them. The animal sacrifices are performed at birth, marriage, death, initiations of new members and priests, and to cure the sick. Usually the animals killed are eaten as part of the ritual, but in some rituals they are discarded. In its ordinance banning the practice, the city of Hialeah defined sacrifice as “to unnecessarily kill, torment, torture, or mutilate an animal in a ritual not for the primary purpose of food consumption,” and defended the ban as a public health measure.


Should animal sacrifice by banned or should it be allowed? Explain your view. What about other practices that unnecessarily harm animals like rodeos and hunting? Should they be banned? Why or why not?


3. The Fur Industry. (See an article in Newsweek, December 25, 1988.) In the last decade, fur sales in the U.S. have increased to $1.8 billion. The average customer is no longer a middle-aged matron, but a 26-year-old career woman buying for herself. Industry spokespeople predict $2 billion in sales each year in the future. Sandy Blye of the American Fur Industry says, “Fur is fashion, fur is warmth. Now it’s lifestyle!” In reply to the charge that animals suffer needlessly, people defending the fur industry claim that most ranch-bred animals are happy until they are killed with a painless gas, and that trapping wild animals is necessary for wildlife management. Animal-rights activists insist that animals raised for fur on ranches do suffer in small pens, and that wild animals are brutally and unnecessarily trapped. Furthermore, the activists maintain that wearing fur is mainly a matter of vanity and the display of social status, and not a matter of keeping warm. “It isn’t necessary to torture and kill animals to show people how much money you have--you can buy a nice cloth coat and pin money to it,” says Bob Barker, who resigned as host of the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants when officials insisted on awarding fur coats to the winners. Such considerations have resulted in an 80 percent drop in fur sales in Holland and Britain. Diana Jones of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals claims that in Britain “wearing fur is almost taboo now.”


What do you think? Is buying and wearing fur immoral? Justify your answer.


4. Hunting a Kodiak bear. (Reported in The New York Times, May 12, 1996.) The Make-a-Wish Foundation is a charitable organization that grants the wishes of terminally ill children. It received an unusual wish from Eric Ness, a 17-year-old boy in St. Paul who was dying from a cancerous tumor in his brain. Eric wanted to hunt and kill a Kodiak bear in Alaska. He had grown up hunting with his dad, a St. Paul, Minnesota police officer. The plans were made for Eric and his dad to go on a all-day fishing trip in the Gulf of Alaska, fly in a plane around Mt. McKinley, and then go hunting for a Kodiak bear with a guide.


The hunting trip was opposed by animal rights activists and even some people at the Make-a-Wish Foundation. The animal lovers claimed that sport hunting is cruel and inhumane. The actor Pierce Brosnan, through the National Animal Protection Organization called Ark Trust, Inc., offered to entertain Eric and his parents on the Idaho set of the movie “Dante’s Peak” if Eric would call off the hunt.


Is hunting and killing a Kodiak bear wrong or not? Explain your position.

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