Key Questions that you need to be able to answer in this topic




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Revision Work for Hazardous Environments Topic:

Key Questions that you need to be able to answer in this topic:


1. What are the different types of hazard?
2. What are the characteristics, distribution and causes of tropical storms?
3. What are the characteristics, distribution and causes of volcanoes and earthquakes?
4. How do we measure the size of natural disasters?
5. What are the short term and long term impacts of natural disasters? (comparative case study of tropical storm in LIC and HIC)
6. Why do people live in hazardous areas?
7. How can hazardous events be managed before and after the events?
8. What can be done in response to hazardous events in the short-term and in the long term? (Case study of one tectonic event and one tropical storm – one in an LIC and one on an HIC)

For some good revision notes/videos/animations etc go to:

http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/

  1. What are the different types of hazard?

Info: split hazards into four groups by the processes that cause them and the nature of the hazard, these are:

  • Geological :Earthquakes, volcanic, land slides

  • Climatic: storms, floods and drought

  • Biological: Fires, pests, disease

  • Technological : Nuclear explosions, accidents, pollution

In this section we are concerned with Geological and Climatic, climatic hazards are weather and water hazards whereas, Geological are split into geomorphological (e.g. landslides) and tectonic.

Task: List the different types of each hazard:

Geological

Climatic








A natural hazard is a natural event with the potential to harm people and their property. A natural disaster is the realisation and impacts of a natural hazard, i.e. the deaths, injuries, disruption and damage. The EM-DAT international database (www.emdat.be/) suggests a hazard becomes a disaster when at least one of the following criteria is met:

    • 10+ people are killed.

    • 100+ people are affected.

    • A state of emergency is declared.

    • International assistance is called for.

Task: look at the list of events below and decide whether they are a Natural Hazard or not, make sure you explain why:

A cyclone that hits an uninhabited island


An earthquake in a mountainous region


An earthquake in a densely populated Urban Area


A cyclone that hits the coast of the Philippines


Distribution, frequency and Scale of Hazards

We look at hazards from multiple view points but the 3 factors (distribution, frequency and scale) are 3 good ways to allow us to compare the impact that hazards will have on an area.

Task: for each of the sections define what the term means in relation to hazards, describe how it affects the potential impacts of a hazard and give some examples:

Term

definition

How it affects potential impacts

Examples



Distribution














Frequency














Scale













2. What are the characteristics, distribution and causes of tropical storms?

Info: Tropical Cyclones are intense storms in the subtropics They are very intense areas of very low pressure, approximately 500 to 1000 kilometres in diameter.. They begin as tropical depressions and intensify into tropical storms and then to tropical cyclones. They are known around the world by different name but the most common 3 are; hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones.. Hurricane force winds, driving rain and storm surges batter coastlines as a hurricane passes.

Formation of Tropical Cyclones

In late summer or early autumn, when sea temperatures are at their highest (noticed how hurricanes always hit America around September/October!)Tropical storms are likely to form. They need sea surface temperatures of 27°C+ to generate intense convection, plus weak upper level winds to allow the storm to develop its characteristic spiral. Hurricanes form 500 km north and south of the equator (between 50 and 250 of latitude) where the Coriolis Effect (Earth’s rotation) is strong enough to generate spin. The warm water (heated to a depth of several metres) heats the air above it, causing it to rise rapidly. Cooler air from elsewhere rapidly moves in to replace the rising air and the process starts again. The rapidly rising moist air, cools as it rises and releases massive amount of energy to form tall cumuli-nimbus clouds. These slowly spin around the central point. Jet streams above the storm clouds continue to suck the air up. Cooling air sinks down through the spiraling mass of clouds to produce a central eye of the storm. Tropical storms move quickly over water, as long as it is warms enough to keep the storm energised. Once over land, where there is less moisture and the surface is cooler, tropical storms quickly calm down. The main effects of a tropical storm are the very strong winds, torrential rain and storm surges. These all can cause massive damage and huge loss of life.


Task: fill in the gaps below using the word box on the opposite page (there is one missing that you have to think about yourself 19 words for 20 gaps!!!)

  1. ______ on surface of ocean is _____________(it also contains lots of moisture)

  2. Hot, _________ air rises, cools and condenses. _________ form.

  3. Rising air creates low ___________. Air rushes in to fill gap left by rising _______.

  4. Rotation of the ______ means winds do not ______ straight. Winds ________ towards the centre.

  5. The ________ continues to ______ itself, as it passes over warm ________.

  6. Whole system moves ________ land.

  7. When the _________ crosses the _______ it ________ its source of _______ and __________. The tropical _________ loses its and _______ out.



system, clouds, moisture, heated, storm, dies, loses, heat, rising, water, towards, energy, land, circle , storm, fuel, Air, earth, blow

Tropical Storms, what and where:

Tropical Cyclones are known by different names around the world (see the map below), these are:

North Atlantic: Hurricanes

Pacific: Typhoons

South East Asia: Cyclones

Australia: Willy-Willies (Cyclones)

c:\documents and settings\terrd001\my documents\my pictures\where.gif

Task: Describe the movement of the different storms around the world.


In essence there is little difference between the different storms, Typhoons often drop a lot more water than Hurricanes but this is only to do with where they form not differences in why they form.

The sequence of events as a tropical storm travelled overhead:

Task: Put the statements in order from 1 – 5 of what the conditions would be as the storm passed overhead.

1. The eye of the storm is overhead. Skies are clear, the temperature and pressure increase, and the wind dies down. Unfortunately this is only a brief lull in the storm.

2. The storm hits again. Temperature and pressure falls. Torrential rain and wind speeds of over 100km/hr occur. The winds are now coming from the opposite direction than they were before.

3. After the storm the temperature and pressure rise again. The rain becomes showers, and the winds die down. The cleanup operation begins.

4. As the storm approached there would be a drop in temperature and pressure. Wind speeds would begin to increase and clouds would form

5. As the storm is overhead the pressure would fall rapidly, as would the temperature. Wind speeds would be in excess of 150km/hr and the rain would be torrential. The wind would whip up waves that could swamp entire coastal areas, or drown entire coral islands in the Pacific.

Order:


Structure of a Hurricane

04-fig-glob-hazrd

Task: Describe the structure of a tropical storm:




3. What are the characteristics, distribution and causes of volcanoes and earthquakes?

Info: volcanoes and earthquake are intrinsically linked, they often occur in the same place due to many of their causes being linked to the location of the tectonic plate boundaries. Along the boundaries of the worlds plates, the movement and the interaction between the plates can cause tectonic hazards.

Cross section of the planet

The internal workings of the earth are very complicated, but can be broken up into the crust (where we live) the mantle, the core (inner and outer) as you can see in the diagram below. c:\documents and settings\terrd001\my documents\my pictures\cur-earthquake_clip_image003.jpg


Task: describe the structure of the earth


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