The African Methodist Episcopal Church

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Japan, and maintains a large number of schools and seminaries, and one college. In recent years it has made some modifications. The general con­ference of Aug., 1907, by a vote of seventy eight to forty, changed the title of their presiding officer from superintendent to bishop. It now reports 1,132 ministers and 32,166 communicants.

e. The African Methodist Episcopal Church: Early in the history of American Methodism there was dissatisfaction in the colored membership, who were aroused by Question 25 in the minutes of the conference of 1780: " Ought not the assistant to meet the colored people himself, and appoint as helpers in his absence proper white persons, and not suffer them to stay late and meet by them­selves? Ans. Yes." In Philadelphia, in 1787, certain colored people belonging to the Methodist Church met to consider their condition. When their ideas were opposed, they withdrew from the church, and Bishop William White (q.v.), of the Protestant Epis­copal Church, ordained a colored preacher for them. Asbury, in 1799, ordained Richard Allen (a slave who had bought his freedom, grown rich, and erected on his own land a church for the people of his race) a deacon, he being the first colored preacher ordained by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The African Methodist Episcopal Church sprang from the rela­tions between the white and colored Methodists of Philadelphia. John Emory (q.v.), representing the Methodist Episcopal Church, sent a letter to them stating that the white preachers could no longer maintain pastoral responsibility over them. On ac­count of this they considered themselves disowned by the Methodists, but an attempt was made to re­gain them. The case was taken into the courts, and was decided in favor of Bethel Church, with the result that the colored people in 1816 organized themselves into an independent body, adopting as its standards the doctrines of the Methodist Epis­copal Church, and, with a few modifications, its form of government. Richard Allen was elected bishop. The church steadily prospered, but not proportionately in education. In 1843 a contro­versy arose on the subject of the qualifications for ministers, led by Daniel Alexander Payne (q.v.), who had been trained as a theologian in the Gettysburg Theological Seminary, and to him is due a large part of the intellectual progress of the church. In 1863 the church purchased Wilberforce University in Ohio. This institution has been successfully con­ducted. After the Civil War, the church increased steadily. Educational work is carried on with in­telligence and enthusiasm. The African Methodist Episcopal Church and the British African Methodist Episcopal Church of the Dominion of Canada were united as a result of negotiations begun in 1880. A peculiarity of this body is that it makes the bishops members of the general conference. The African Methodist Episcopal Church has been devoted to missions. Before it was sixteen years old it estab­lished a mission in Hayti. In 1847 it founded The Parent Home and Foreign Missionary Society. . It carries on missions in Africa, South America, West Indies, and Hawaii, and in Africa its missions have about 12,000 members. This body has produced notable orators, such as Bishops Campbell and

Arnett, who have elicited admiration and respect for themselves, their race, and their denomination. The government of the body resembles that of other Methodist Episcopal Churches in most respects, but includes special differences of its own origina­tion. The corrected returns by Dr. Carroll give the membership at 452,126.

7. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church: The colored people of the City of New York resented caste prejudice, which "forbade their ta­king the sacrament until white members were served." This, and the desire for other church privileges de­nied them, induced them to organize among them­selves, which they did in 1796, and in the year 1800 they built a church and called it " Zion." A contract was made between that body and the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States of America., that, as they had no ordained minis­ters of their own race, the Methodist Episcopal Church should provide them. Under this arrange­ment " Zion " received the services of preachers of that church for " about twenty years." In the end, a minister, who had been sent to " Zion Colored Church," having seceded from the Method­ist Episcopal Church, the trustees of " Zion " in­vited him to finish out the year, and, when this was done, the members induced him to ordain as elders three of their brethren, already ordained as dear cons. These proceeded to ordain others. These elders, following the example of Wesley, ordained one of the number a bishop: During 1820 churches were organized in Philadelphia and New Hamp­shire. An eight years' controversy began in 1848, which finally reached the civil courts. The laity were admitted to representation in the annual and general conferences in 1851, and by 1858 the spirit of unity in the church had gained the ascendency. As late as 1865 the church had but 92 ministers and 5,000 members; but between 1864 and 1876 it doubled its membership more than five times. This body eliminated the word, ".male " from the discipline so that the sexes are equally eligible to all positions, lay. and clerical. In 1868 an unsuc­cessful attempt was made by Gilbert Haven (q.v.) and others to promote the union of the Zion Church with the Methodist Episcopal Church. Negotia­tions for union between the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church and the African Methodist Church have also proved abortive. In 1868 the episcopacy was made technically a life office; never­theless the bishop was to be elected quadrennially; if not reelected, he was considered to be " retired," but could retain the title of bishop. This rule, in practise, created dissatisfaction, and in 1880 it was enacted that, without reelection, the bishop should be certain of tenure during good behavior. This church early espoused education, but for a long while its enterprises to promote it were unsuccess­ful; at last, however, Livingstone College was firmly established under the presidency of Dr. Joseph C. Price, whose abilities were extraordinary. On the platform and in conversation he was irre­sistible; anywhere in England or America he could secure money. for the institution, which became famous. The church publishes weekly periodicals and a Quarterly Review, and is endeavoring to se 


cure the best modern equipment for extension. Foreign missions were made a separate department in 1884. The home membership (1909) is 545,681.

8. The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church: In 1866 the conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South authorized the bishops to organize its colored members " into an independent eccle­siastical body," if it should appear that the mem­bers desired it. The bishops then formed a num­ber of annual conferences, consisting wholly of colored preachers. These requested in 1870 the appointment of five as a commission to meet five of their own number to create an independent church. The convention chose as the name of the body " The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church." Two bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church South presided and ordained to the episcopacy two col­ored elders, W. H. Miles and R. H. Vanderhorst, selected by the eight colored conferences. The total value of church property then made over by the Methodist Episcopal Church South to the Col­ored Methodist Episcopal Church was $1,500,000. Members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South have given them plots of ground and aided them in building churches. Paine College, Augusta, Ga., (with an enrolment of 300 in 1907), and Lane Col­lege, Jackson, Tenn., are carried on by the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church South. This church took over, from the body that had nourished it, the articles of religion and the forms of government. Its rules will not allow any others than negroes the privilege of membership. At the outset there were but little more than 60,000 members; in 1909 it had 233,911, shepherded by 2,809 ministers and housed in 2,619 churches.

9. Minor Methodist Churches: The Primitive Methodist Church, as it exists in the United States, came from England. It has three annual confer­ences subdivided into districts and maintaining itinerant and local ministers and class leaders. They are slowly growing, having had 4,764 com­municants in 1890 and 7,295 in 1909. The In­dependent Methodist Churches are composed of congregations in Maryland, Tennessee, and the District of Columbia. Their statistics are inaccessi­ble. The Evangelist Missionary Church comprises ministers and members in Ohio, who in 1886 with­drew from the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. They have now about 5,000 members. They have one bishop and profess to have no creed but the Bible. The New Congregational Method­ists withdrew in 1881 from the Methodist Episcopal Church South in Georgia on account of alleged ar­bitrary action. Seven years later a number of its churches united with the Congregationalists. At the present time they report 1,782 members. The Congregational Methodists originated in Georgia in 1852. When the Congregational body began to establish congregations in the South after the war many of the churches and ministers that organized the Congregational Methodist Church went over to them. In doctrine, the Congregational Method­ists agree with other Methodist bodies; and in pol­ity they are not strictly Congregational. Appeals from the decision of the lower church may be taken

to a district conference, thence to the state confer­ence, and ultimately to .the general conference. This church has 15,529 members, chiefly in the southern states. The African Union Methodist Protestant Church dates from 1816, and differs from the African Methodist Episcopal Church in opposing itinerancy, paid ministers, and episcopacy. It has 3,867 members in eight states. The Union American Methodist Episcopal Church agrees in doc­trines and usages with other Methodist bodies. It antedates the African Methodist Episcopal Church, being organized in 1813 in Wilmington, Del., is di­vided into conferences, and elects its bishops for life. In 1890 it had 2,279 members, and now re­ports 18,500. The Zion Union Apostolic Church was organized in 1869 in Virginia. It was reported in 1890 to have 2,346 communicants, and at the end of 1909 reports 3,059.

10. In Canada and the Maritime Provinces: Methodism was introduced into Newfoundland in 1765 by Lawrence Coughland, who was admitted as a traveling preacher by John Wesley in 1755.

Coughland preached there until 1773, 1. Begin  his work being strengthened by local nings. preachers. In 1785 Wesley sent John

McGeary especially to that colony. Methodism came into being in Nova Scotia in 1779 by the conversion of William Black through the in­fluence of Wesley's sermons, and the efforts of newly arrived Methodists. Black in 1784, seeking for reinforcements, visited the conference called at Baltimore, Md., to receive Dr. Coke and form the Methodist Episcopal Church. By 1791 the work had so prospered in Nova Scotia as to demand a district with Black as elder, to act as superintend­ent of six stations, manned by as many preachers from the United States. Other preachers had been sent to various parts of the provinces. Methodism reached New Brunswick by way of Nova Scotia and the United States. In the Province of Canada local preachers had been working before the year 1790, but to William Losee, a preacher on trial without a definite appointment, belongs the honor of being the first missionary to Canada. His ex­periment proving successful, the next year he was regularly appointed. By 1799 a flourishing, pre­siding elder's district existed. In 1810 the Gene­see conference was organized, and preachers in Canada for the most part assumed relations with that body. Until 1812 they had been associated with the Methodist Episcopal Church. From,the beginning there had been steady advance till the war between the United States and Greatttritain; but during that conflict the members were dispersed, and at its close only 1,785 could found. The Methodists of Lower Canada, ng no preacher competent to administer the mances, applied to Nova Scotia for aid, an regular minister was sent from the British conference. This created confusion, which continued till 1820, when the upper province was allotted to the American preach­ers, and the lower to the British. In 1824 Method­ism in Upper'Canada, then comprising thirty five ministers and preachers on trial and 6,150 mem­bers, was organized into a single annual confer­ence, and during the next four years increase was


encouraging. At the conference of 1828 the Meth­odist churches located in Canada, by the consent of the general conference of the Methodist Episco­pal Church, were formed into an independent de­nomination, and William Case was appointed its general superintendent until the ensuing annual conference. That conference was visited by Bishop Hedding, under whose counsel the organization was perfected.

In 1833 the Methodist Episcopal Church of Can­ada had three annual conferences, 197 effective ministers, 25,000 members, and a polity practically the same as that of the Methodist 2. Division Episcopal Church in the United States. and Denom In that year it unified with the British inations. conference, changing its name and form of government. When the con­ference agreed to this union it did so without for­mal consultation with the laity. The majority both of ministers and laymen acquiesced, but cer­tain dissentients declared that, as it had not been submitted to the societies, the act was unconstitu­tional, and that it infringed upon the agreement made between the church in Canada and the Meth­odist Episcopal Church in the United States. These organized a new Methodist Episcopal Church of Canada, more than one thirteenth of the member­ship, declining to affiliate with the British confer­ence, associating with them. Being without schools, parsonages, and churches, they began litigation to secure a pro rata part of the property. The lower courts decided in their favor, but on appeal the higher court recognized the Wesleyan Methodists of Canada as the rightful owners. After this ques­tion was settled the Wesleyan Methodist Church of Canada entered on a career of prosperity, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, thrown wholly on its own resources, made every sacrifice in order to succeed. Four Primitive Methodist ministers had been sent in 1829 from England because of the number of that sect emigrating to the United States. Three years later the Hull circuit in England de­cided to take the Canadian societies under its im­mediate charge. A general missionary committee was formed by the home church and under its man­agement the increase of members was such that in 1854 the Canadian annual conference of Primitive Methodists was established. In 1831 the Bible Christians sent two missionaries to the British do­minions in America, one to West Canada and the other to Prince Edward Island. In 1855 the so­ciety was strong, and held its first conference in Columbus. It then had 51 churches, 21 regular preachers and many lay helpers, and 2,200 members. Ten years afterward the union with it of the Prince Edward Island churches, together with local growth, raised its membership to 5,000. The Canadian Wesleyan Methodist Church was formed in 1829. It was founded principally by Henry Ryan and introduced lay representation in all its courts. Ryan died in 1833, but the little church struggled on, and in 1841 united with the Methodist New Connection. The Methodist New Connection of England, with the consent of the parent society, established a mission in Canada in 1837. The mis­sion, enlarged by admitting a small denomination, VII, 23

" Of the Marriage of muumera, v. to~ .w

Ceremonies of Churches," " Of Christian Men's Goods " and " Of a Christian Man's Oath." The following were retained with important omissions: " The Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salva­tion," " Of Original or Birth Sin," " Of the Church," and" Of Baptism." The following were rejected: " Of the Going down of Christ into Hell," " Of the Three Creeds," " Of Works before Justification," '° Of Christ alone without Sin,", 1 of Predestinar tion and Election," " Of Obtaining Eternal Salva­tion only by the Name of Christ," " Of the Author­ity of the Church," " Of the Authority of General Councils," " Of Ministering in the Congregar

_ _ _ _e t  ll . "e 

assumed the title " Canadian Methodist New Con­nection." In 1840 the British conference " with­drew from its cooperation " with the Canada con­ference, which acted independently for seven years, but during that period the form and name of the Wesleyan Methodist Church remained unchanged. In 1847 the union was restored, and in 1854, by special arrangement, the Lower Canada and the Hudson Bay missionary districts, both of which had stood in immediate connection with the Brit­ish Wesleyan conference, became incorporated with the Wesleyan church in Canada. In 1857 the Methodist Episcopal Church founded an educa­tional institution at Bellville, which was incorpo­rated as Bellville Seminary; three years later it was affiliated with the Toronto University as Bell­ville College, the ladies' department taking the designation of Alexandria College, and later the re­maining part of the institution being known as Albert University.

For years a yearning existed in many hearts for organic union of Methodist bodies. This first bore fruit in the union of the Wesleyan

S. Vni. Methodist Church in Canada, the East 

ication. ern British American conferences, and

the Methodist New Connection Church,

proposed in 1872, and consummated in Toronto in

1874, the uniting bodies adopting the all inclusive

name of the Methodist Church of Canada. Its first

census reported 1,031 ministers, and 101,946 mem­

bers, two universities, three theological schools, and

several colleges and secondary schools. Yet some­

thing still greater awaited Canadian Methodism.

The first Ecumenical Conference of Methodism,

which convened in Wesley Chapel, London, in 1881,

gave such impulse to fraternity as to extend the

horizon till glimpses of complete Methodist unity

could be perceived in the not distant future. Can­

ada was the first to know its visitation. In Bell­

ville, in 1883, was accomplished the formal and ac­

tual union of the Methodist Church of Canada, the

Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada, the Primi­

tive Methodist Church in Canada, and the Bible

Christian Church of Canada. The body thus formed

was in the possession of seven colleges, having 100

professors and 5,068 students. The Methodist

Church of Canada contributed to the union 128;

337 members; the Methodist Episcopal Church in

Canada, 25,678 members; the Primitive Method­

ists, 8,000; and the Bible Christians, 6,800 a. sum

total of 168,815 members. The itinerant general

superintendents hold office for the term of eight

years, and are eligible to reelection. The annual

conferences are composed of ministers and an equal

number of laymen, a president being selected from

among the ministerial members. The president of

the annual conference is the superintendent of the

district in which he may be stationed. The annual

conference elects superintendents for each district.

There are now six departments of mission work,

home, Indian, French, Chinese and Japanese in

British Columbia, and foreign. The home work

embraces needy fields in the dominion, Newfound­

land, and Bermuda. These include more than

35,000 communicants. The French missions are

in Quebec, The foreign missions are in China and

laneous works; his &splanotory "ores upon W.e n.„. ...­tamant, issued by the game house as a standard (the re­cently deciphered diaries from which the Journals were written, containing s considerable amount of new material, are in course of publication in London, and will be avail­able at the principal repositories for Methodist literature in the United States); the Limes and other literature given under the articles on the Weeleys in the last volume of this work; the Books of Discipline of the various Methodist bodies; the Journals of the Methodist Episcopal Church and of the Methodist Episcopal Church South; the Minntea of the annual confgl'enaes; the Proceedings of the Ecumeni­cal Methodist confermaes, held in London, 1881, Washing­ton, 1891, and London, 1901; the Records of the Centennial Convention in Baltimore, 1884; the Year Boo" of the vari­ous bodies; and the early periodicals to which reference is made in the text. Consult also the numerous sketches of Methodist worthies in this work, and the literature g

leethodiete THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 854

Japan. That in Japan has been affiliated with the missions of the two Episcopal Methodist Churches which have formed the Methodist Church of Japan (ut sup., I). The connectional educational institu­tions are: Victoria University, Toronto, the germ of which was planted in 1837, and it was incorpo­rated in 1841; Mount Allison College, founded in 1840 at Sackville, N. B.; Wesleyan Theological College, Montreal; Wesley College, Winnipeg; Al­bert College, Bellville, Ont.; Alma College, St. Thomas; Methodist College, St.. Johns, Newfound­land; Columbian College, New "tminister, Brit­ish Columbia; Ontario Ladies' College, Whitby, incorporated in 1874; and the Stanstead Wesleyan College, Stanatead, Quebec, established in 1873. Long is the list of able and devoted men who have built up this noble structure. Among those who have finished their course can be mentioned, without exciting jealousy, Egerton Ryerson (q ), the re­nowned educator, George Douglas, whose memory is ever green, Samuel S. Nelles (q.v.), so long president of Victoria University, and William Morley Punshon (q.v.), whose preaching, administration, and guid­ance promoted every interest of the advancing church and country. To day the vastness of the territory of the Methodist Church of Canada is sug­gested by the names of its conferences on the conti­nent of North America: Toronto, London, Hamil­ton, Bay of Quints, Montreal, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Newfound­land, Manitoba, Alberta, and British Columbia. Distributed over this immense area are its 2,476 ministers and 334,637 members.

V. The Doctrinal Standards of Methodism: John Wesley was a clergyman of the Church of England. The societies which he formed were organizations for the conversion of men and their religious de 

velopment. He aimed to retain his 1<. Doctrinal converts within the pale of that great

Bases. national church, .and from its clergy­

men the majority of Methodists re­

ceived the sacraments. He and they believed the

fundamental doctrines of universal Christendom,

as contained in the articles, homilies, and ritual to

which they had been accustomed from childhood.

Nevertheless, in the judgment of Wesley, certain

doctrines of the New Testament were neglected by

the clergy or robbed of their true proportion and

emphasis. These doctrines were by him consid­

ered vital to the spread of pure Christianity. Ac­

cordingly he expounded them in his conferences,

published them with comments in the minutes and

preached upon them. Also he found it necessary

to write and publish sermons upon the doctrines

which Methodism emphasized; for his preaching

excited vehement opposition from unsympathetic

Anglican clergymen, and from Presbyterian, Inde­

pendent, and Baptist ministers. The Baptists dif­

fered from him on the method and subjects of bap­

tism and its relation to the reception of the Lord's

Supper. To preserve unity of belief among the

preachers and members of his societies, he prepared

Notes on the New Testament, wherein are clear ex­

planations of the pivotal passages upon which he

based the views he so firmly believed and fervently

preached. To render impossible the preaching of

heretical doctrines in the chapels, the deeds by which they were held contained a limitation of the powers of trustees in the following words: " Pro­vided always, that the persons preach no other doc­trine than is contained in Mr. Wesley's `Notes on the New Testament,' and four volumes of ` Ser­mons.' " The same provision subsists in the model deed of the Wesleyan Methodist Church (in Eng­land, Ireland, etc.) in the following words: " No person shall be allowed to preach, who shall main­tain, promulgate, or teach any Doctrine or Practise contrary to what is contained in certain Notes on the New Testament, commonly reputed to be the Notes of the said John Wesley, and in the first four volumes of Sermons, commonly reputed to be writ­ten and published by him."

When introducing these Sermons to the public, Wesley said,

" The following sermons contain the substance of what I have been preaching for eight or nine years past. During that time, I have frequently spoken in public on every sub­ject in the ensuing collection, and I am not conscious that there is any one point of doctrine, on which I am accus­tomed to speak in public, which is not incidentally, if not professedly, laid before every Christian reader. Every seri­ous man, who peruses these, will, therefore, see in the clear­est manner what these doctrines are, which I embrace and teach as the essentials of true religion."

It was for this purpose that Wesley made these Sermons so large and vital a part of his doctrinal standards. Certain discrepancies have been alleged with respect to the number of these Sermons. The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Great Britain and Ireland and the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States recognize fifty three; the Methodist Church of Canada and the Methodist Episcopal Church South but fifty two, and certain critics but fortyAhree. The discrepancies are of no signifi­cance, as all agree on the smallest number, stated in the model deed, and all essential truths of the system of doctrine on which Methodism depends are discussed in the forty three, and nothing addi­tional of doctrinal value is contained in the nine or ten added by Wesley after he had made the others a standard.

The distinctive doctrinal features of Methodism are suggested by the titles of these Sermons: " Scrip­tural Christianity," " The Almost Christian," " Awake thou that sleepest," " The Way to the Kingdom," " Salvation by Faith," " Justification by Faith," " The Righteousness of Faith," " The First Fruits of the Spirit," " The Spirit of Bondage and Adoption," " The Master of the

s. Dis  New Birth," " The Witness of our own

tinctive Spirit," two sermons on the" Witness

Doctrinal of the Spirit," "Sin in Believers," thir 

Features. teen sermons on the Sermon on the

Mount, "The Nature of Enthusiasm,"

" A Caution against Bigotry," " Christian Perfeo­

tion," " The Judgment." Incidental to the direct

exposition of these topics the distinction between

Wesley's Arminian theology and that of Calvin is

pointed out; and the dangerous license of Anti­

nomianism condemned. Wesley emphasized fore­

knowledge, but opposed the doctrines of election

and reprobation as taught by Calvin. Magnifying

free will and resultant responsibility, he acknowl.


edged natural depravity, yet held that .the Spirit of God so counteracts its effects that every man is capable of surrendering himself to him through Christ by faith. He taught Christian perfection as the oonsimmlation of the work of salvation; and that it is subsequent to regeneration, so that, while believers may grow in grace daily, perfection is reached by faith. By subtle distinctions he met successfully the current attacks upon his view. Upon this subject his writings were voluminous, and have occasioned controversy within as well as without Methodist circles.

Until 1784 Methodimn in America was under the control of Wesley; it was in fact the extension of his societies. In that year it devolved 3. American upon him to superintend its tranafor

Position. mation into a church. Before his plan

had fully matured or any American

had anticipated it, the American conferences asked,

and by vote answered, a peculiar question.

Q. " How shall we conduct ourselves toward European preachers? " Answer: " If they are recommended by Mr. Wesley, will be subject to the American conference, preach the doctrine taught in the four volumes of Sermons, and Notes on the New Testament .... we will receive them; but if they walk contrary to the above directions, no ancient right or appointment shall prevent their being excluded from our connection."

Wesley sent to America a series of articles of religion, selected from the Thirty nine of the Church of England. The following were adopted, with slight verbal changes and minor omissions: " Of Faith in the Holy Trinity," " Of the Word, or the Son of God, who was made very Man," " Of the Resurrection of Christ," " Of the Holy Ghost," " Of the Old Testament," " Of Free Will," " Of the Justification of Man," " Of Good Works," " Of Works of Supererogation," " Of Sin after Justifi­cation," " Of the Church," " Of Purgatory," " Of Speaking in the Congregation in such tongue as the People understand," " Of the Sacraments," " Of the Lord's Supper," " Of both Kinds," " Of the one Oblation of Christ, finished upon the Cross," " Of the Marriage of Ministers," " Of the Rites and Ceremonies of Churches," " Of Christian Men's Goods " and " Of a Christian Man's Oath." The following were retained with important omissions: " The Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salva­tion," " Of Original or Birth Sin," " Of the Church," and " Of Baptism." The following were rejected: " Of the Going down of Christ into Hell," " Of the Three Creeds," " Of Works before Justification," " Of Christ alone without Sin," " Of Predeotinar tion and Election," " Of Obtaining Eternal Salva­tion only by the Name of Christ," " Of the Author­ity of the Church," " Of the Authority of General Councils," " Of Ministering in the Congrega­tion," " Of the Unworthiness of the Ministers which Hinders not the effect of the Sacra­ment," " Of the Wicked which eat not the Body of Christ in the Use of the Lord's Sup­per," " Of Excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided," " Of the Homilies," " Of Conse­cration of Bishops and Ministers," " Of the Civil Magistrates."

A comparison between the English Articles as they were originally and as they were transmitted

to the American conference reveals that the guid­ing purpose of Wesley, in altering and omitting,

was to expurgate the leaven of ritual­4. Purpose ism, Calvinism, and Romanism. These and Results. articles, however, do not contain spe 

cial reference to some of the most pre­cious doctrines held by the founder of Methodism and by the churches that derived preaching, teach­ing, and example from those whom he instructed. But Wesley knew that the American Methodists had incorporated in their standards all that he had imposed upon English Methodism. Episcopal Methodist Churches, including the Canadian Meth­odist Church, accepted the articles sent by Wesley. The Methodist Episcopal Church of America is in harmony with these facts. The rule on the sub­ject is as follows:

•' The General Conference shall not revoke, alter or change our Articles of Religion, nor establish any new standard or rules of doctrine contrary to our present, existing, and estab­lished standards of doctrine."

The unparalleled unity in belief among the vari­ous Methodist bodies is the fruit of Wesley's method of conserving doctrines. Had he expressed them in confessions or even creeds, they would have been centers of controversy. His followers in every land concur with the Canadian Methodist theologian, Burwash:

" It is to the spirit and type of this preaching that our obligations bind us. There may be in the Notes and Ser­mons things incidental, accidental and personal, to which no Methodist minister or layman would feel bound to pro­fees assent; but Methodism demands that in all its pulpits we should preach this Gospel and expound the word of God according to this analogy of Faith."

The Calvinistic Methodists signify their doctrines

by their name. In Evangelical spirit they are sim­

ilar, but in the doctrines on which Wesley took the

Arminian position they adhere to the Calvinist

standards. J. M. BOCKLEY.

Bramooaersry: The fundamental sources are the Works of John Wesley, the beat ed. for this purpose being that issued as standard by the Methodist Book Concern, New York, in 7 vole., including in ;vole. i ii. his Sermons, in vols. iii. iv. his Journals, and in vols. v. vii. his misoel­ianeous works; his Rxplanatory Notes upon the New Tes. lament, issued by the same house as a standard (the re­cently deciphered diaries from which the Journals were written, containing a considerable amount of new material,

are in course of publication in London, and will be available at the principal repositories for Methodist literature in the United States); the Limes and other literature given under the articles on the Wesleys in the lest volume of this work; the Books of Discipline of the various Methodist bddies; the Journals of the Methodist Episcopal Church and of the Methodist Episcopal Church South; the Minutes of the annual oouferenow; the Proceedings of the Ecumeni.

cal Methodist Conferences, bold in London, 1881 Washington,1891, and London, 1901; the Records of theCentennial Convention in Baltimore, 1884; the Year Books of the vari. ous bodies; and the early periodicals to which reference in made in the text. Consult also the numerous sketches of Methodist worthies in this work, and the literature given there.

Treatises of a general character are: A. Stevens, HisG of Ore Religious Movement . . . Called Methodism, 3 vole., New York, 1888 81; H. S. Skeats, Hiss. of Me Free Churches q/ BBpland, 1888 1861, London, 1859; G. Smith, Hi4 q/ Wesleyan Methodism, 3 vole., ib. 1885; L. S. Jacoby. GesehWte des Methodiemus, seiner Entstehunp and hue. breitunp, a vols., Bremen, 1870; W. H. Daniels, ruus. troted Hist. of Methodism in Grew Britain and America from the Weeleys to the Present Time, New York, 1880; J. Atkinson, Centennial Hint. of American Methodism, ib. 1884; idem, Beginnings q/ are Wesleyan Movement in




America ib. 1896; J. W. Lee, N. Lucxock, and J. M. Dixon Illustrated Mist. of Methodism, St. Louis. 1900; J. F. Hurst, British Methodism, 3 vols., London, 1901; W. J. Townsend, A New Mist. of Methodism, 2 vols., ib., 1901.

Works on various Methodist bodies are: G. Smith, Mist, of Wesleyan Methodists, 3 vols., London, 1857 61; H. Smith, Sketches of Methodist New Connexion Ministers, ib. 1893; G. Packer, The Centenary of the Methodist New Connexion 1797 1897 ib. 1897; T. Colhouer, Sketches of the Founders of the Methodist Protestant Church and its Bibliography, Pittsburg, 1880; A. H. Bassett, Concise Mist. of the Methodist Protestant Church, Baltimore, 1882; E. J. Drinkhouse Mist. of Methodist Reform and the Meth­odist Protestant Church, 2 vols., Baltimore, 1899; E. Bowen Mist. of the Origin of the Free Methodist Church, North Chili, New York, n.d.; F. W. Bourne, The Bible Christians: Origin and History, London, 1905; J. Petty, Mist, of the Primitive Methodist Connexion, ib. 1861; W. Williams, Welsh Calvinistic Methodism. A Historical Sketch, its. 1884; D. Young, The Origin and Mist. of MetA­odism in Wales and the Borders, ib. 1893• J. B. MeeGeary, The Free Methodist Church. Chicago, 1909.

For the Methodist Episcopal Church North and South consult: Mist. of the Organization of the Methodist Epis­copal Church South. Comprehending all the Official Pro­ceedinge of the General Conferences, ate., Nashville, 1845; A. Stevens, Memorials of the Introduction of Methodism into the Eastern States, 2 vols., Boston, 1848 52; idem, Mist. of the M. E. Chuch in U. S. A., 4 vols., New York, 1864• idem Centenary of American Methodism, ib. 1866; C. Elliott, History of the Great Secession from the Method­ist Episcopal Church in the year 18/,6, Eventuating in the Organization of the New Church Entitled " The Methodist Episcopal Church South," Cincinnati, 1855; J. Lednum, A History of the Rise of Methodism in America. Containing Sketches of Methodist itinerant Preachers, 1738 86, Phila­delphia, 1859; N. Bangs, Hilt. of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 4 vols., New York, 1860; L. C. Matlack, Anti­slavery Struggle and Triumph in the M. E. Church, ib. 1881; H. N. MeTyeire, Mist. of Methodism, Nashville, 1886; J. G. Jones, A Complete Mist. of Methodism as Con­nected with the Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, Vol. i., 178P 1817, Nashville, 1887; G. Alexander, in American History Series, vol. u., New York, 1894; J. M. Buckley, in American Church His­tory Series, vol. v., New York 1897.

For Methodism among the African races consult: J. B. Wakeley, Lost Chapters Recovered from the Early History of African Methodism, New York, 1889; L. M. Hagood, The Colored Man in the Methodist Episcopal Church, Cin­cinnati, 1890; D. A. Payne, Mist. of as A. M. E. Church, Nashville 1891; J. W. Hood, One Hundred Years of the African M. E. Zion Church, New York, 1895; 1. L. Butt Mist, of African Methodism in Virginia; or, four Decades in the Old Dominion, Eastville, Va., 1908.

Books dealing with special topics are: J. Emory, De­fense of Our Fathers, New York, 1827; D. W. Clark, Life and Times of Elijah Madding, ib. 1855; R. Paine, Life of W. MaKendree 2 vols., Nashville, 1869; E. H. Myers, Description of the M. E. Church, 1844 lB: comprising a 3o Years' History of the Relations of the two Methodism, Nashville, Tenn., 1875; T. L. Flood and J. W. Hamilton, Lives of Methodist Bishops, New York, 1882; F. A. Arehi­bald, Methodism and Literature, Cincinnati, 1883; A. W. Cummings, Early Schools of Methodism, New York, 1886; W. J. Townsend, The Story of Methodist Union, London, 1906; D. B. Brummitt, Epworth League Methods, Cincin­nati, 1906; H. K. Carroll, Missionary Growth of the M. E. Church, Cincinnati, 1907; J. Telfond, Wesley's Veterans. Lives of Early Methodist Preachers told by Themselves. With Additions and Annotations, London, 1909.

On Methodism in various, countries consult: G. H. Cornish, Cyclopedia of Methodism in Canada, Toronto, 1881; E. Ryerson, Canadian Methodism; its Epochs and Characteristics, ib. 1882; A. Sutherland, Methodism in Canada, London, 1903 J. E. Sanderson, First Century of Metodism in Canada, vol i., Toronto, 1908; C, H. Crookshank History of Methodism in Ireland, vol. i., Wes­ley and his Time, vol. ii., The Middle Age, Belfast, 1885­1886; E. Thomas, Irish Methodist Reminiscences, ondon, 1889; R  C. Phillips, Irish Methodism, ib. 1897; H. B. Foster, Wesleyan Methodism in Jamaica. ib. 1881; J. Col­well, Illustrated Mist. of Methodism in Australia, New South Wales. and Polynesia, Sydney, 1904; H. Adams,

Methodism in the West Indies, London, 1908; J. M. Erik­son, Metodismen i Sverige, Stockholm, 1895; J. Jiingst, Der Methodismus in Deutschland, Giessen, 1906.

On the polity, constitution, doctrines, and discipline of Methodism consult: R. Emory, Mist. of the Discipline of the M. E. Church, New York, 1843; T. E. Bond, The Economy of Methoism Illustrated and Defended, ib. 1852; T. E. Bond Economy of Methodism, ib. 1852; E. Grind­rod A Compendium of the Laws and Regulations of Wes­kyan Methodism, London, 1858; B. Hawley, Manual of Methodism, or he Doctrines, General Rules and Usages of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York, 1868; J. H. Rigg, Connexional Economy of Wesleyan Methodism, Lon­don, 1879• idem, Church Organizations, its. 1896; . W. Willisms, Constitution and Polity of Wesleyan Methodism, London, 1881 S. M. Merrill A Digest of Methodist Law; or, Helps in the Administration of the Discipline of the M. E. Church, Cincinnati, 1885; D. Sherman, Mist. of the Revisions of te Discipline of the M. E. Church, New York, 1890 T. B. Neely, Evolution of Episcopacy and Organic Methodism, ib. 1888; idem, Mist. of the Origin and Do­velopment of the Governing Conference in Methodism, Cin­cinnati, 1892; B. Gregory, Side Lights on the Conflicts of Methodism, 18.27 6.E, London, 1898; D. J. Waller, Con­stitution ad Polity of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, ib. 1898; W. F. Barclay, Constitution of Methodist Episcopal Churches inAmerica, Nashville, Tenn., 1902; G. F. Oliver, Our Lay O47ce Bearers, Cincinnati, 1902; J. J. Tigert, Doc­trines of h1. E. Church in America, ib. 1902; idem, Con­stitutional Mist. of American Episcopal Methodism, Nash­ville, 1903; Doctrines and Discipline of the M. E. Church South, ed. Alexander, ib. 1906; D. A. Goodsell, J. B. Hingeley and J. M. Buckley, The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Cincinnati, 1908; H. Wheeler, Mist. and Exposition of the Twenty five Articles of Religion of the M. E. Church, New York, 1908; H. T. Hudson, Methodist Armor; or, A Popular Exposition of the Doctrines, Peculiar Usages and Ecclesiastical Machin­ery of the M. E. Church South, Nashville, n.d.

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