Born c. 563 Bce or 623 bce lumbini, today in Nepal Died




НазваBorn c. 563 Bce or 623 bce lumbini, today in Nepal Died
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^ "The Buddha, His Life and Teachings". Buddhanet.net. http://www.buddhanet.net/buddha.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 

  • ^ L. S. Cousins (1996), "The dating of the historical Buddha: a review article", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (3)6(1): 57–63.

  • ^ See the consensus in the essays by leading scholars in The Date of the Historical Śākyamuni Buddha (2003) Edited by A. K. Narain. B. R. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. ISBN 81-7646-353-1.

  • ^ “If, as is now almost universally accepted by informed Indological scholarship, a re-examination of early Buddhist historical material, ..., necessitates a redating of the Buddha’s death to between 411 and 400 BCE....: Paul Dundas, The Jains, 2nd edition, (Routledge, 2001), p. 24.

  • ^ http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl2204/stories/20050225001008800.htm

  • ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2002/sep/16spec.htm

  • ^ http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2008/03/buddha-born-in-orissa-scholars.html

  • ^ http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Journal/jounalvol1/pdf/orhj-3.pdf

  • ^ "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 

  • ^ http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/

  • ^ "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 

  • ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 45

  • ^ Skilton, Andrew. A Concise History of Buddhism. 2004. p. 41

  • ^ a b Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat Retrieved on February 2011

  • ^ a b Fowler, Mark. Zen Buddhism: beliefs and practices. Sussex Academic Press. 2005. p. 32

  • ^ a b Karetzky, Patricia. Early Buddhist Narrative Art. 2000. p. xxi

  • ^ Swearer, Donald. Becoming the Buddha. 2004. p. 177

  • ^ Schober, Juliane. Sacred biography in the Buddhist traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Motilal Banarsidass. 2002. p. 20

  • ^ Jones, J.J. The Mahāvastu (3 vols.) in Sacred Books of the Buddhists. London: Luzac & Co. 1949–56.

  • ^ Carrithers, page 15.

  • ^ Armstrong, Karen (2000). Buddha. Orion‬. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-7538-1340-9

  • ^ Carrithers, page 10.

  • ^ "Buddhanet.net". Buddhanet.net. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/lumbini.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 

  • ^ "UNESCO.org". Whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 

  • ^ "Sacred-texts.com". Sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/lob/lob04.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 

  • ^ Turpie, D. 2001. Wesak And The Re-Creation of Buddhist Tradition. Master's Thesis. Montreal, Quebec: McGill University. (p. 3). Available from: Mcgill.ca. Retrieved 17 November 2006.

  • ^ a b Narada (1992). A Manual of Buddhism. Buddha Educational Foundation. p. 9–12. ISBN 967-9920-58-5

  • ^ Narada (1992), p11-12

  • ^ Sue Hamilton, Early Buddhism: A New Approach: The I of the Beholder. Routledge 2000, page 47.

  • ^ Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India: From Origins to AD 1300. Penguin Books, 2002, page 137.

  • ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, pages 49-50.

  • ^ Romila Thapar, The Penguin History of Early India: From Origins to AD 1300. Penguin Books, 2002, page 146.

  • ^ a b Narada (1992), p14

  • ^ Guimet.fr

  • ^ Conze (1959), pp39-40

  • ^ Narada (1992), pp15-16

  • ^ Narada (1992), pp19-20

  • ^ a b c Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion

  • ^ a b The Golden Bowl

  • ^ a b Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2007). Introduction to Buddhism An Explanation of the Buddhist Way of Life. Tharpa. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-9789067-7-1

  • ^ a b c The Basic Teaching of Buddha

  • ^ Maha-parinibbana Sutta (DN 16), verse 56

  • ^ Mettanando Bhikkhu and Oskar von Hinueber, "The Cause of the Buddha's Death"; Vol. XXVI of the Journal of the Pali Text Society, 2000. See also this article by Mettanando saying the same thing: Buddhanet.net.

  • ^ Maurice Walshe, The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya, 1995, Boston: Wisdom Publications, "[DN] 30: Lakkhaa Sutta: The Marks of a Great Man," pp. 441-60.

  • ^ Ven. Elgiriye Indaratana Maha Thera, Vandana: The Album of Pali Devotional Chanting and Hymns, 2002, pp. 49-52, retrieved 2007-11-08 from Buddhanet.net

  • ^ Epstein, Ronald. Buddhist Text Translation Society's Buddhism A to Z. 2003. p. 200

  • ^ It is therefore possible that much of what is found in the Suttapitaka is earlier than c.250 B.C., perhaps even more than 100 years older than this. If some of the material is so old, it might be possible to establish what texts go back to the very beginning of Buddhism, texts which perhaps include the substance of the Buddha’s teaching, and in some cases, maybe even his words. How old is the Suttapitaka? Alexander Wynne, St John’s College, 2003, p.22 (this article is available on the website of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies: [www.ocbs.org/research/Wynne.pdf]

  • ^ It would be hypocritical to assert that nothing can be said about the doctrine of earliest Buddhism ... the basic ideas of Buddhism found in the canonical writings could very well have been proclaimed by him [the Buddha], transmitted and developed by his disciples and, finally, codified in fixed formulas. J.W. De Jong, 1993: The Beginnings of Buddhism, in The Eastern Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 25

  • ^ The Mahayana movement claims to have been founded by the Buddha himself. The consensus of the evidence, however, is that it originated in South India in the 1st century CE–Indian Buddhism, AK Warder, 3rd edition, 1999, p. 335.

  • ^ Bareau, André, Les récits canoniques des funérailles du Buddha et leurs anomalies : nouvel essai d'interprétation, BEFEO, t. LXII, Paris, 1975, pp.151-189.

  • ^ Bareau, André, La composition et les étapes de la formation progressive du Mahaparinirvanasutra ancien, BEFEO, t. LXVI, Paris, 1979, pp. 45-103.

  • ^ Shimoda, Masahiro, How has the Lotus Sutra Created Social Movements: The Relationship of the Lotus Sutra to the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra, in A Buddhist Kaleidoscope, (pp320-22) Ed Gene Reves, Kosei 2002

  • ^ Nagendra Kumar Singh (1997). "Buddha as depicted in the Purāṇas". Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Volume 7. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. pp. 260–275. ISBN 9788174881687. http://books.google.com/?id=UG9-HZ5icQ4C&pg=PA260 . List of Hindu scripture that declares Gautama Buddha as 9th Avatar of Vishnu as as follows [Harivamsha (1.41) Vishnu Purana (3.18) Bhagavata Purana (1.3.24, 2.7.37, 11.4.23 Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24 Bhagavata Purana 1.3.24, Garuda Purana (1.1, 2.30.37, 3.15.26) Agni Purana (160.Narada Purana (2.72)Linga Purana (2.71) Padma Purana (3.252) etc. Bhagavata Purana, Canto 1, Chapter 3 - SB 1.3.24: "Then, in the beginning of Kali-yuga, the Lord will appear as Lord Buddha, the son of Anjana, in the province of Gaya, just for the purpose of deluding those who are envious of the faithful theist." ... The Bhavishya Purana contains the following: "At this time, reminded of the Kali Age, the god Vishnu became born as Gautama, the Shakyamuni, and taught the Buddhist dharma for ten years. Then Shuddodana ruled for twenty years, and Shakyasimha for twenty. At the first stage of the Kali Age, the path of the Vedas was destroyed and all men became Buddhists. Those who sought refuge with Vishnu were deluded." Found in Wendy O'Flaherty, Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. University of California Press, 1976, page 203. Note also SB 1.3.28: "All of the above-mentioned incarnations [avatars] are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord [Krishna or Vishnu]"

  • ^ "Buddhism". Islam International Publications. http://www.alislam.org/library/books/revelation/part_2_section_2.html. Retrieved 9 September 2010. 

  • ^ "An Overview". Alislam. http://www.alislam.org/introduction/index.html. Retrieved 9 September 2010. 

  • ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Manifestations of God". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 231. ISBN 1-85168-184-1

  • ^ The Cambridge History of China, Vol.1, (The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC—220 BC) ISBN 0-521-24327-0 hardback

    Further reading

    • Ambedkar, B.R. (1957). The Buddha and His Dhamma. Bombay: People's Education Society. 

    • Armstrong, Karen (2001). Buddha. New York: Penguin Books. 

    • Bechert, Heinz, ed (1996). When Did the Buddha Live? The Controversy on the Dating of the Historical Buddha. Delhi: Sri Satguru. 

    • Conze, Edward, trans. (1959). Buddhist Scriptures. London: Penguin Books. 

    • Ñāṇamoli, Bhikku (1992). The Life of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon (3rd ed.). Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. 

    • Ortner, Jon (2003). Buddha. New York: Welcome Books. 

    • Rahula, Walpola (1974). What the Buddha Taught (2nd ed.). New York: Grove Press. 

    • Reps, Paul; Senzaki, Nyogen (1957). Zen Flesh, Zen Bones: A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings. New York: Doubleday. 

    • Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L.; Wawrytko, Sandra A.; DeGraff, Geoffrey (1996). The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.. 

    • Sathe, Shriram (1987). Dates of the Buddha. Hyderabad: Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti. 

    • Senzaki, Nyogen; McCandless, Ruth Strout (1953). Buddhism and Zen. New York: Philosophical Library.
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