A. Paleolithic Age Old Stone Age (2,500,000bce-10,000bce)

НазваA. Paleolithic Age Old Stone Age (2,500,000bce-10,000bce)
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Outline -- History 1121, Exam 1

I. Prehistory

A. Paleolithic Age - Old Stone Age (2,500,000bce-10,000bce)

1. Examples of man (Australopithicus – Lucy)

2. Development of culture (ritual, fire, art)

B. Mesolithic Age - Middle Stone Age (10,000bce-7,000bce) - transition from

hunting and gathering to farming

C. Neolithic Age - New Stone Age (7,000bce-3,500bce)

1. Development of culture (wheel, cooking, megaliths)

2. Settling into village life (division of labor, domestication of animals)

II. Mesopotamia

A. Sumerians (3,500bce-2,330bce)

1. Accomplishments (cuneiform, architecture, law)

2. Religion

B. Akkadians (2,330bce-2,250bce), then chaos

C. Amorites (1,950bce-1,600bce)

1. Hammurabi’s Code

2. Epic of Gilgamesh, Enuma Elish

E. Hittite invasions and chaos starting around 1600bce

D. Assyrians (900bce-612bce)

1. Military state -- Development of weapons, latitude and longitude

2. Sargon II

E. Chaldeans (612bce-539bce) – Nebuchadnezzar

III. Egypt

A. Old Kingdom (3,000bce-2,160bce)

1. Consolidation of kingdom

2. Start of pyramids, hieroglyphics

3. Religion

B. First Intermediate Period (2,160bce-2,050bce) - internal chaos

C. Middle Kingdom (2,050bce-1,786bce)

1. More social justice

2. Many public works

D. Second Intermediate Period (1,786bce-1,560bce) - invasion of the Hyksos

E. New Kingdom (1,560bce-1,085bce)

1. Restoration of power with 18th Dynasty – Ahmose and Thutmose

2. Akhenaton's attempt at monotheism

F. Third Intermediate Period (1,085bce-332bce) - end of true Egyptian independence. Many invasions (Libyans, Ethiopians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans)

IV. Greek Political Development

A. Early Civilizations

1. Minoan (3,000bce-1,400bce)

2. Mycenaean (2,000bce-1,200bce)

B. Greek "Dark Ages" (1,200bce-800bce)

C. Rise of the polis

1. Sparta

2. Athens -- Cleisthenes

D. Persian War (499bce-479bce), then Delian League

E. The Peloponnesian War with Sparta (431bce-404bce)

V. Greek Cultural Development

A. Classical Greece

1. Society and religion

2. Philosophy with Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

3. Poetry with Sappho and Pindar

4. Drama with Sophocles and Aristophanes

B. Hellenistic Greece

1. Philip II of Macedon

2. Alexander the Great

3. Philosophy with Zeno, Epicurus, Diogenes

4. Math/Physics with Euclid, Archimedes, Aristarchus

VI. Early Rome and the Republic

A. Etruscans

B. Early Republic

1. Society, classes (patricians, plebians) - Struggle of the Orders

2. Politics

3. Punic Wars with Carthage – Barca clan

VII. Later Republic

A. Society - populares and optimates

B. Breakdown of Senate powers

1. Marius and Sulla

2. First Triumvirate - Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar

3. Assassination of Caesar and formation of Second

Triumvirate - Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus

VIII. Roman Empire

A. Octavian takes over and becomes Caesar Augustus

1. Public building projects

2. Pax Romana

3. Literature

B. Society

C. Period of the Good Emperors

D. Growth of Christianity

1. Edict of Milan (313ce)

2. Council of Nicaea (325ce)

E. The Fall of Rome

1. Empire falters with poor leaders, harsh and militant society, inflation,

and invasions.

2. Constantine - split of empire into east and west

3. Theodosius - last emperor to hold off barbarian tribes

4. Goths gain power and numbers in empire and sack Rome (410ce)

5. Last emperor deposed (476ce). Kingdom of Italy created.

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