Slide 1: Get That Baby Moving!

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Slide 1: Get That Baby Moving!

(Picture of child sliding down a playground slide with mother’s assistance)

Kay Ratzlaff, Coordinator of Instructional Resources

Florida Instructional Materials Center for the Visually Impaired

Slide 2: Video clip of “Dancing Baby”

So, Let’s Get That Baby Moving!

Slide 3:Essential Truths about Vision…

Vision is the primary data-gathering system of humans, providing both near and distance information and integrating information holistically. All the other senses together cannot provide equal information to the brain. (Gesell, Illg & Bullis, 1949)

Slide 4: Essential Truth….

Hearing is not a motivator equal to vision in encouraging an infant to reach for objects. There is a mismatch in the timing between when an infant is physically ready to reach (by about 5 months) and when the auditory processing ability can attach meaning to sound (by about 9 months). (Barraga and Erin, 1992)…from Koenig and Holbrook, Foundations 2000

Slide 5: Intervention

“For children with these (severe) visual concerns, programming often focuses on massage, visual, and auditory bombardment rather than on integrating the central nervous system so that the visual system can become organized and ready for taking in and using information that will enhance potential for gaining and expanding control over the world.”

Beth Langley, ISAVE

Slide 6: Impact of Movement on Development of Visual Systems

Slide 7: Movement, Posture, and Vision

To fixate gaze

Child must have head stability

Head/neck organization

To recruit peripheral fields, shift gaze, or achieve horizontal pursuit

Child must have active head/neck rotation

Dr. Sandra Lewis. (2002) Visual Functioning PowerPoint presentation

Slide 8: Movement, Posture, and Vision

To achieve ocular alignment, oculocephalic integration, and eye-hand dissociation

Child must have head/neck alignment

Child must have antigravity head control and stability

To achieve vertical pursuit and recruitment of central field

Child must have graded extension and flexion of head and neck

Slide 9: Movement, Posture, and Vision

To achieve horizontal gaze shift and control of saccadic movements

Child must be able to shift head from midline and have active lateral head righting

To achieve accommodation and convergence and depth perception

Child must be able to grasp and bring hand to mouth or face

Slide 10: Movement, Posture, and Vision

Weight bearing in prone on forearms facilitates

Scapular/head/neck stability

Stability of gaze (fixation)

Mobility (direction) of gaze

Emerging convergence

Slide 11: Movement, Posture, and Vision

Proprioceptive input to hands and feet (weight bearing) facilitates

Organization of gaze/fixation

Active lateral weight shift in prone facilitates

Fluid horizontal gaze shift

Emerging pursuit across midline

Slide 12: Movement, Posture, and Vision

Trunk organization/stability, with midline development and active antigravity flexion as in hand to foot play facilitates

Fluid horizontal gaze shift

Emerging pursuit across midline

Slide 13: Movement, Posture, and Vision

Stability in sitting facilitates

Near-far gaze shift

Depth perception

Eye-hand coordination

Refined recruitment of peripheral fields

Stability for scanning

Slide 14: Movement, Posture, and Vision

Movement in upright postures facilitates

Refined visual adaptation to movement

Expanded peripheral fields

Visually directed movement

Gaze control for distance vision

Slide 15: Movement, Posture, and Vision

Antigravity side lying facilitates

Organization of midline

Stability of head for gaze shift

Refining of depth perception

Eye-hand coordination

Slide 16: Overview

Children with low vision do not develop motor skills the same way sighted children do.

How does this affect the child?

Body Image

Moving Skills


Social Skills

Slide 17: Lack of Incentive to Move

Infants and toddlers with visual impairments have little incentive to move because of:

Low muscle tone

Reduced opportunities for movement


Insufficient understanding of the object world

Inability to visually monitor environment

Review Fall 2002, Facilitating Walking by Young Children with Visual Impairments Lowry, S and Hatton, D

Slide 18: Lack of Incentive to Move

Children with severe visual impairments also faced with:

Unique movement patterns

Lack of visual cues to motivate reaching

Reduced opportunity to observe and emulate motor movements of others (repetitive motor play)

Tendency to engage in non-productive interaction patterns

Process of acquiring motor skills varies from child to child

Developmental stages

Methods to acquire movement skills

Slide 19: Progression of Motor Development

Typical Muscle Tone

Movement for Postural Stability (Co-contraction)

Movement for Mobility Against Postural Stability (Activation)

Practice for Refined Coordination

Atypical Muscle Tone

Postural Fixations

Compensatory Movement Patterns

Habitual Movement Patterns

Muscle Shortening or Elongation



Movement Analysis and Curriculum for Visually Impaired Preschoolers. Brown and Bour, 1987

Slide 20: Characteristics of Movement of Children with Visual Impairment

Movements are scarce or minimal

Small ranges in exploration of environment

Stays in one place (playground, swimming pool)

Poor body image

Kinesthetic awareness is lacking

Proprioception is poor – can’t judge force, speed, posture, etc.

Movement Analysis and Curriculum for Visually Impaired Preschoolers by Carla Brown and Barbara Bour

Slide 21: Characteristics cont.

Fearful of movement that is out of contact with surface (in space)

Jumping, hopping, diving, standing on one foot, etc.

Movement is organized – not fluid

Grading is absent in mid-range transitions

Either fully extended or flexed, nothing in between

Slide 22: Characteristics cont.

Movement is symmetrical or asymmetrical and primarily occurs in straight planes

Rotation is inadequate and counter-rotation is absent

Range of movement is restricted at spine in extension and/or rotation

When movement is difficult (slick surface, increased height, etc.) the upper extremities tense and move to high guard position

Slide 23: Characteristics cont.

When moving from floor to standing there is usually weight loading on upper extremities as well as lower

In transitional patterns the integrated function of trunk and pelvis is absent

Slide 24: Characteristics cont.

Gait is poor

Decreased stride length


Hyper-extension or increased knee flexion at mid stance

Lateral head movements

Inadequate weight shift over loaded side in stance

Inadequate weight shift of trunk over pelvis

Slide 25: Characteristics cont.

Joint hypermobility is present at hips (double jointed)

Muscle weakness is significant

Hip adductors (movement together)

Shoulder girdle

Abdominal (especially obliques)

Slide 26: Characteristics cont.

Can be resistant to tactile input (tactile defensive??)

Hypotonia – low muscle tone

Wrist instability

Poor palmar arch development

Poor flexibility

Trapezius (back)

Pectoralis (chest and shoulders)

Lower back extensors (upright posture)

Slide 27: Characteristics cont.

Hyper-extension of elbows

Finger flaring

Hyper-extension of knees in stance

Lumbar lordosis in stance (pelvic thrust)

Pronation of feet (roll in)

Shoulder elevation

Cervical hyperextension (head down)

Slide 28: Correcting Motor Problems

What therapies, exercises, games or, activities can be used to enhance motor development?

Slide 29: Preventing/Minimizing Motor Problems

Encourage the infant to turn their head

Infants need to spend time (supervised) playing on their stomachs (prone)

Pushing-up is vital for development of balance skills and

prerequisite for arm and trunk strength needed for reaching

Encourages head control and trunk strength

Can be introduced early by lying prone on the caregiver’s stomach

Developmental Guidelines for Infants with Visual Impairments; Lucek, A., Chen, D., Kekelis, L.

Slide 30: Preventing/Minimizing Motor Problems

Physically guide infant/toddler through basic movements (developmentally appropriate)

Support rough-house games during playtime

Improve body awareness by

Naming and touching of body parts during usual daily activities. “Where’s your ear?” “Let’s put bubbles on your chin.”

Isolation and integration of body parts and movement

Slide 31: Examples of Activities to Correct Motor Problems


Weight bearing

Weight shifting

Tentative movements


Body image

Wrist instability


Finger flaring

Slide 32: Benefits from Crawling

Strengthens shoulder girdle

Head positioning

Provides stable base for movement and exploration

Transition to kneeling, standing and cruising

Slide 33: Examples of Activities to Correct Motor Problems

Riding a tricycle

Weight shifting

Hip adductors


Muscle tone and strength

Lower back extensors

Fluid movement

Closes the wide base of support

Directionality and spatial awareness

Slide 34: Suggested Activities

Heavy lifting, pushing, pulling

Locomotor Movements


Jumping (two feet)


Side Step




Slide 35: Suggested Activities cont.

Tumbling/gymnastics: different body and spatial positions


Balance activities (skating, statues, balance beam, etc.)


Music play

“Guided” free movement

Tempo – fast and slow

Body awareness

Slide 36: PE Kindergarten Class of Students with Visual Impairments

Slide 37: End Result

With proper assessments and activities to minimize motor development problems the child can develop efficient skills in:



Daily Living

Self Esteem



O & M

Body Aware


Slide 38: What’s the Connection Between Movement and Learning?

Strong, “smart” hands, in flexible, competent bodies comprise the physical component for later development of Braille skills.”

…..Wendy Drezek in Move, Touch, DO

Slide 39: What’s the Connection Between Movement and Learning?

Developing Concepts

Spatial relations

Integration of sensory cues

Object permanence

Provide experiences with objects in contact with body,

slight distance at midline, left of midline, right of midline, above and below midline, to develop concept of permanence.

Slide 40: Factors that Affect Concept Development

Hesitancy in exploration and initiation of movement

Lack of opportunity to imitate

Focusing on isolated parts of a whole

Problems transferring information to new situations

Auditory system does not provide same integration as the visual system

Tactual sensory “bank” is smaller than the
visual “bank”

Tactile defensiveness

Early Focus by Pogrund R., Fazzi, D., Lampert, J.; American Foundation for the Blind 1992

Slide 41: Fine Motor Skills

Slide 42: Results of Poor Motor Development on Fine Motor Skills

Contrary to popular opinion, babies born with visual disabilities are

often less receptive with their hands.

Tactile defensiveness is a misnomer – actually defensive to touching

unknown things.

Have weak, ineffectual hands from lack of movement

Slide 43: Activities for Building Finger and Hand Strength

Squeeze and mold play dough, clay or Thera-putty

Hammer on a toy workbench

Shovel sand and lift pails filled with sand

Pull a string to activate a talking toy (rather than push button)

Opening jars with screw on lids

Objects to pull apart and push together

Tinkertoys, pop-beads, locking blocks

On the Way to Literacy

Slide 44: Hand Strength cont.

Opening and clipping clothespins

Grasping and holding own weight on the monkey bars (or chin-up bar)

Playing tug-of-war with wash cloths or hand towels (increasing the

length of time to sustain pulling)

Playing toy drums or xylophones

Slide 45: Activities for Developing Dexterity

Finger games, such as “Where is Thumbkin?” or touching each finger

to the thumb one at a time

Finger puppets

Twisting small knobs

“Plunking” the keys of a toy piano

Pulling a zipper

On the Way to Literacy

Slide 46: Activities for Developing Dexterity

Velcro blocks

Stringing beads

Tying and untying strings:

Nylon rope

Thick plastic clothesline

Leather shoe strings

Shoe strings

Slide 47: Developing Tactile Sensitivity

Opportunities to play with toys of varied textures

Have child use, touch and talk about the feelings of hairbrush,

toothbrush, wet and dry bath items, etc.

Eating finger foods of different textures

Finger paint – (Use pudding so they can eat the “paint”)

Slide 48: Developing Tactile Sensitivity in Real-Life Situations

Crawl on different textures: tile, carpet, sand, mud, grass, concrete,


Experience different temperatures – ice cube, hair dryer, warm car,


Play with lotions with different textures – baby oil, lotion, Vaseline,

exfoliating scrub, etc.

Experience different textures of fabrics

Slide 49: Developing Tactile Abilities

Use real objects whenever possible

When real object too large to examine at one time (car, tree, etc.)

break down into smaller concepts and build the whole picture with experience.

Teach the child to explore the environment

Use routines and everyday objects

Teach systematic scanning of objects

Begin with hand-under-hand modeling

Encourage child to verbalize what they are feeling

Move to auditory cues

Eliminate cues and prompts

Slide 50: Contact Information

Kay Ratzlaff

Coordinator of Instructional Resources

Florida Instructional Materials Center for the Visually Impaired

4210 W. Bay Villa Avenue, Room 26

Tampa, FL 33611

Slide 51: Resources

Early Development in Children with Severe Visual Impairment by

Susan Timmins

Movement Analysis and Curriculum for Visually Impaired Preschoolers

by Carla Brown and Barbara Bour

Handout: Working with Young and Multihandicapped Students who are

Visually Impaired by Carla Brown

Handout: Foundations of Orientation and Mobility: Birth to Three Years

by Susan Holmes Shier

Handout: Working with Young and Multihandicapped Students who are

Visually Impaired Sensory Processing by Carla Brown

Slide 52: Resources

Individualized, Systematic Assessment of Visual Efficiency (ISAVE) from APH

Дадаць дакумент у свой блог ці на сайт


Slide 1: Get That Baby Moving! iconGuest artist bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, ma slide presentation and lecture 2002 University of Toledo, Toledo, oh. Slide presentation and lecture 1999 awards and honors

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